The Eddington limit is not a strict limit on the luminosity of a stellar object. The limit does not consider severalpotentially important factors, and super-Eddington objects have been observed that do not seem to have the predictedhigh mass-loss rate. Other factors that might affect the maximum luminosity of a star include:•
. A problem with steady, continuum-driven winds is that both the radiative flux and gravitationalacceleration scale with
. The ratio between these factors is constant, and in a super-Eddington star, the wholeenvelope would become gravitationally unbound at the same time. This is not observed. A possible solution isintroducing an atmospheric porosity, where we imagine the stellar atmosphere to consist of denser regionssurrounded by lower density gas regions. This would reduce the coupling between radiation and matter, and thefull force of the radiation field would only be seen in the more homogeneous outer, lower density layers of theatmosphere.•
. A possible destabilizing factor might be the turbulent pressure arising when energy in theconvection zones builds up a field of supersonic turbulence. The importance of turbulence is being debated,however.
. Another factor that might explain some stable super-Eddington objects is the photon bubbleeffect. Photon bubbles would develop spontaneously in radiation-dominated atmospheres when the magneticpressure exceeds the gas pressure. We can imagine a region in the stellar atmosphere with a density lower than thesurroundings, but with a higher radiation pressure. Such a region would rise through the atmosphere, withradiation diffusing in from the sides, leading to an even higher radiation pressure. This effect could transportradiation more efficiently than a homogeneous atmosphere, increasing the allowed total radiation rate. Inaccretion discs, luminosities may be as high as 10
100 times the Eddington limit without experiencinginstabilities.
A. J. van Marle; S. P. Owocki; N. J. Shaviv (2008). "Continuum driven winds from super-Eddington stars. A tale of two limits".
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Radiative Processes in Astrophysics
, New York: J. Wiley & Sons 1979.N. Smith; S. P. Owocki (2006). "On the role of continuum driven eruptions in the evolution of very massive stars and population III stars".
L48. arXiv:astro-ph/0606174. Bibcode 2006ApJ...645L..45S. doi:10.1086/506523.R. B. Stothers (2003). "Turbulent pressure in the envelopes of yellow hypergiants and luminous blue variables".
967. Bibcode 2003ApJ...589..960S. doi:10.1086/374713.J. Arons (1992). "Photon bubbles: Overstability in a magnetized atmosphere".
578.Bibcode 1992ApJ...388..561A. doi:10.1086/171174.
•Juhan Frank, Andrew King, Derek Raine (2002).
Accretion Power in Astrophysics
(Third ed.). CambridgeUniversity Press. ISBN 0-521-62957-8.
•Surpassing the Eddington Limit (http:/