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Asthma

Asthma

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Published by Nader Smadi

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Published by: Nader Smadi on Feb 07, 2009
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05/10/2014

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Asthma
Definition

Asthma occurs when the airways in your lungs (bronchial tubes) become inflamed
and constricted. The muscles of the bronchial walls tighten, and your airways produce
extra mucus that blocks your airways. Signs and symptoms of asthma range from
minor wheezing to life-threatening asthma attacks.

Asthma can't be cured, but its symptoms can be controlled. Management includes
avoiding asthma triggers and tracking your symptoms. You may need to regularly
take long-term control medications to prevent flare-ups and short-term "rescue"
medications to control symptoms once they start. Asthma that isn't under control can
cause missed school and work or reduced productivity due to symptoms. Because in
most people asthma changes over time, you'll need to work closely with your doctor
to track your signs and symptoms and adjust your treatment as needed.

Symptoms

Asthma signs and symptoms range from minor to severe, and vary from person to
person. You may have mild symptoms such as infrequent wheezing, with occasional
asthma attacks. Between episodes you may feel normal and have no trouble breathing.
Or, you may have signs and symptoms such as coughing and wheezing all the time or
have symptoms primarily at night or only during exercise.

Asthma signs and symptoms include:
\ue000
Shortness of breath
\ue000
Chest tightness or pain
\ue000
Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
\ue000
An audible whistling or wheezing sound when exhaling
\ue000
Bouts of coughing or wheezing that are worsened by a respiratory virus such as a cold or
the flu
Signs that your asthma is probably getting worse include:
\ue000
An increase in the severity and frequency of asthma signs and symptoms
\ue000
A fall in peak flow rates as measured by a peak flow meter, a simple device used to check
how well your lungs are working
\ue000
An increased need to use bronchodilators \u2014 medications that open up airways by relaxing
the surrounding muscles

Work with your doctor to determine when you need to increase your medications or
take other steps to treat symptoms of worsening asthma and get your asthma back
under control. If your asthma keeps getting worse, you may need a trip to the
emergency room. Your doctor can help you learn to recognize emergency signs and
symptoms so you'll know when to get help.

Causes
It isn't clear why some people get asthma and others don't, but it's probably due to a
combination of environmental and genetic (inherited) factors.
Asthma triggers are different from person to person. Exposure to various allergens
and irritants can trigger signs and symptoms of asthma, including:
\ue000
Airborne allergens, such as pollen, animal dander, mold, cockroaches and dust
mites
\ue000
Respiratory infections, such as the common cold
\ue000
Physical activity (exercise-induced asthma)
\ue000
Cold air
\ue000
Air pollutants and irritants such as smoke
\ue000
Certain medications, including beta blockers, aspirin and other nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs
\ue000
Strong emotions and stress
\ue000
Sulfites, preservatives added to some perishable foods
\ue000
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which stomach acids
back up into your throat
\ue000
Menstrual cycle in some women
\ue000
Allergic reactions to foods such as peanuts or shellfish
Risk factors

Asthma is common, affecting millions of adults and children. A growing number of
people are diagnosed with the condition each year, but it isn't clear why. A number of
factors are thought to increase the chances of developing asthma. These include:

\ue000
A family history of asthma
\ue000
Frequent respiratory infections as a child
\ue000
Exposure to secondhand smoke
\ue000
Living in an urban area, especially if there's a lot of air pollution
\ue000
Exposure to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in farming,
hairdressing and manufacturing
\ue000
Low birth weight
\ue000
Being overweight
When to seek medical advice
Three key circumstances may lead you to talk to your doctor about asthma:
\ue000
If you think you have asthma. If you have frequent coughs that last more

than a few days or any other signs or symptoms of asthma, see your doctor.
Treating asthma early, especially in children, may prevent long-term lung
damage and prevent worsening of the condition over time.

\ue000
To monitor your asthma after diagnosis. If you know you have asthma,

work with your doctor to keep it under control. Good asthma control not only
helps you feel better on a daily basis, but also can prevent a life-threatening
asthma attack.

\ue000
If your asthma symptoms get worse. Contact your doctor right away if your

medication doesn't work for you. Asthma changes over time, and you'll need
periodic adjustments to your treatment to manage your symptoms. Don't try to
solve the problem by taking more medication without consulting your doctor.
Overusing asthma medication can cause side effects and may even make your
asthma worse.

Severe asthma attacks

Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening and require emergency treatment. If
your asthma isn't getting better with quick-relief medications, seek emergency help
right away. Work with your doctor ahead of time to determine what to do when your
signs and symptoms worsen \u2014 and when you need emergency treatment. Signs of an
asthma attack that needs emergency treatment include:

\ue000
Rapid worsening of shortness of breath or wheezing
\ue000
No improvement even after using short-acting bronchodilators
\ue000
Shortness of breath with minimal activity
Tests and diagnosis

Diagnosing asthma can be difficult. Signs and symptoms can range from mild to
severe and are often similar to those of other conditions, including emphysema, early
congestive heart failure or vocal cord problems. In children, it can be hard to
differentiate asthma from wheezy bronchitis, pneumonia or reactive airway disease.

In order to rule out other possible conditions, your doctor will do a physical exam and
ask you questions about your signs and symptoms and about any other health
problems. You may also be given lung (pulmonary) function tests to determine how
much air moves in and out as you breathe.

Tests to measure lung functioninc lu d e:
\ue000
Spirometry. This test measures the narrowing of your bronchial tubes by
checking how much air you can exhale after a deep breath, and how fast you
can breathe out.

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