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Piping Connection Considerations

Piping Connection Considerations

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Published by: GrundfosEgypt on Dec 28, 2012
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by Greg Towsley 
lthough the abrication and installation o the piping system may appear trivial, it isimportant that some basic piping considerationsbe observed. By ollowing these concepts, the lieo the pumping equipment and its accessorieswill be extended.I good piping practices on the suction and dis-charge sides o the pump are not ollowed, it canbe expected that the ollowing problems may beexperienced:
 Noisy pump and driver during operation
 Axial load uctuations
 Excessive equipment vibration
 Premature bearing ailure o the pump anddriver
 Premature wear and ailure o other pumpparts, such as the mechanical seal and wearrings
 Cavitation damage to the impeller and inlet o the casing, and possibly the discharge
 Leakage at the anges
 Cracking or breakage o the anges or casingWhile this article provides an overview o consid-erations o the piping system, it is by no means acomplete reerence on the subject.Besides Grundos’ installation and operationinstructions, other reerences should be reviewed.As they relate to pumps, the Hydraulic Institute(HI)
provides general piping guidelines in theirStandards.In addition to those reerences shown at the endo this article, other reerence that can provideadditional recommendations include:
Anvil International Inc. (2001).
Pipe FittersHandbook
. http://www.anvilintl.com/
Heald, C.C.
Cameron Hydraulic Data
,18th Edition. Ingersoll-Rand Company, 1995.
Nayyar, Mohinder L.
Piping Handbook
,6th Edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992.Although it is not Grundos’ responsibility todesign the piping system or suction intake, a re-view o the system by Grundos can provide thedesigner comments on how the equipment willbe aected by the design.
Beore considering the overall system, an under-standing o the components o the piping systemand their eect on the system should be reviewed.
Pumps can be connected to their piping systemsthrough various means. The most basic connec-tion is a threaded connection, typically to Nation-al Pipe Thread (NPT) standards.Threaded connections are commonly used onsmaller pumps in water applications. Otherconnections used in various industries includegrooved or Victaulic, clamp, or Tri-clamp.Probably the most common pump connectionis a ange. Flanges are typically cast or ormedintegrally with the volute. As with pipe anges,cast iron pump anges are rated as 125# or 250#with at aces.
area o the maximum expansion joint inside di-ameter multiplied by the pressure in the pipe. Inaddition, according to HI
, i the joint is not prop-erly aligned with the pipe, the shear orce andtorsion may be transmitted to the equipment.To insure that the expansion joints are eectivein the piping system, they must be sized properlyand the material o construction must corre-spond with the application.Although these joints provide relie o axial pipemovement, they are not as exible as manyperceive. The pump and system can also be sub- jected to excessive orces due to poor expansion joint sizing.
An isolation valve, or shuto valve, should beinstalled in the discharge pipe. It assists in thepriming o the pump, starting the pump, and orisolation, as may be required or pump mainte-nance. Except or axial and mixed ow pumps, theisolation valve should be closed beore stoppingpump, especially i no check valve is installed.An isolation valve should not be used or thethrottling o the pump. Throttling o the dis-charge isolation valve contributes to a substan-tial waste o energy in the pump. Should anexisting discharge valve be ound to be throttlingthe pump excessively, a correctly sized pumpshould be installed, or some other variable speeddrive should be considered.
A check valve is utilized in a pump system toprevent back ow o the liquid when the pump isstopped. This reverse ow could cause damage tothe pump, rom the impeller becoming loose orexample, or cause diculty in re-priming the pump.The check valve is located in the discharge line,between the pump and isolation, or shuto,valve, and on the ar side o the expansion joint,away rom the pump. It should never be installedin the suction line. A check valve is a ow restric-tor in the piping, and will cause a pressure drop.Steel anges are typically rated or 150# or300# with 1/16-inch raised aces. These adhereto ASME/ANSI ange and ftting specifcationsB16.1
and B16.5
, respectively.I the system has no pressure or other limita-tions, cast iron anges can be connected to steelanges.For most pump systems, it is preerred to utilizeat ace (F.F.) anges on both the pump and thepiping connection. This at mating ange willhelp insure that an acceptable gasket suraceis available to obtain a good seal, and preventbreaking when the bolts are tightened.Occasionally, a system will require increase pres-sure containment capabilities at connections.The use o raised ace (R.F.) anges allows morepressure to be concentrated on a smaller gasketarea. However, care must be taken when tighten-ing bolts on R.F. anges.I not properly tightened and torqued to themanuacturer’s recommendations, the angescan pivot along the edge o the raised ace. Thiscan cause distortion in the pump volute, as wellas possibly cracking or breaking a ange.
Expansion joints can be used when the pipingsystem can expect axial movement due to ther-mal expansion o the liquid. The expansion jointswill assist in preventing the pump rom beingshited out o alignment.Typically, they are installed in low-pressuresystems. Important to the reliability o the pumpand piping system is the need or proper selec-tion and installation.An expansion joint can be installed on the suc-tion and discharge side o a pump. The locationshould be on the opposite side o the piping sup-port, or anchor, away rom the pump.I the expansion joint is placed between theanchor and the pump, a orce could be causedthat would be more than the pump or the systemcould handle. The orce would be equal to the
A pipe reducer is a ftting that allows a changein the diameter o the pipe in the system. Theinormation in this section is also applicable toa pipe increaser. It is important to properly sizeand install a reducer to insure that smooth owthrough the system is not disturbed, causingdamage to the equipment or the system.Damaging turbulence and noise can occur i proper sizing and installation is not ollowed ac-cording to the manuacturer’s recommendations.The size o the reducer should not provide morethan one reduction in size. Turbulence and exces-sive noise may occur i a reduction o greaterthan one pipe diameter is installed. The reducershould be a conical type, in lieu o the contoureddesign, to assist in preventing air pockets.According to the Hydraulic Institute
, the reducerused with an end suction pump should be placed5 to 10 pipe diameters rom the pump inlet. Inaddition, air pockets can be created due to instal-lation errors.I possible, the reducer should be installed witha slope up towards the pump to prevent airpockets. I the reducer is o the eccentric design,the sloping side should be on the lower side o the pipe, as shown in
Figures 1
Figure 3
 provides a view o a concentric reducer installedon the suction end o an end suction pump.
Elbows may be required near the pump to redi-rect ow rom the piping system into the pump.The direction the elbow is installed is critical tothe nature o the ow characteristics and theoverall lie o the pump.For the installation o an elbow on the suctionside o a double suction pump, the direction thatthe elbow aces is very important. Should onebe required, a long radius elbow should be usedwith its plane in a position at a right angle, up ordown, to the pump shat.
Figure 1.
Eccentric Reducers on Suction Piping
Figure 2.
Eccentric Reducer on Suction Piping
Figure 3.
Concentric Reducer on Suction Piping

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