6215-2Figure 2. One year old plant.
than the semi-erect thornless blackberries which have beenavailable or years. Navaho is susceptible to orange rust anddouble blossom.
—an erect, thorned blackberry. The ruit arelarge and o medium frmness, ripening about 5 days aterCherokee. They have better avor than Comanche and equalto Cheyenne, but less avor than Cherokee. The seeds aremedium in size. This cultivar has more years o good yieldsthan many cultivars. Propagation by root cuttings is readily suc-cessul. This variety is moderately tolerant to anthracnose.Raspberries are grown in many o the northern states,but are not recommended or Oklahoma. Buds oten breakduring warm periods in January and February. This makes theplants very susceptible to cold damage later in the season.Only moderately low temperatures may cause the death oentire canes. Blackberries do not usually begin growth asearly as raspberries, and so are ar more dependable or ruitproduction.Raspberries are not heat tolerant. I they are planted inthe state, they should be sited in at least 50 percent shade.Fruit quality and yield will not be nearly as good as they are inthe northern parts o the United States. Raspberries stressedby excessive heat will be weak and susceptible to inectionby many organisms. However, raspberries may be hard tokill once they are established, and can become nuisances.Their culture is similar to trellised blackberries.
There are several blackberry-raspberry hybrids on the mar-ket. The hybrids have trailing habits and must be trellised.In order to prevent excessive winter injury, avoid placingcanes up on the trellis until late winter or early spring. Thesehybrids include:
—the berries are large, strongly avored,sot, and medium to late maturing. When disease ree plantsare used, Boysenberries may produce well or 4 to 6 years.One selection is thornless, the other has very small thorns.
—dewberries ripen early in the season, justahead o several o the true blackberries. The berries aremedium-large, medium-frm, and o good avor. Plants aremoderately vigorous and productive. Dewberries are some-what more winter hardy than Boysenberries.
—the berries are dark wine colored, large,sweet, and sot when ripe. They are not as avorul as Boy-senberries. The plants have small thorns, and are vigorousand moderately productive. Youngberries ripen somewhatearlier than Boysenberries.
—this is a red raspberry that is said to be heattolerant. However, this plant has not been very successul inOklahoma. It is not recommended or planting here.
A soil test is needed to determine the need or ertilizer andpH adjustment each year. The soil should be deeply cultivated,and organic matter such as compost should be incorporatedinto the rows. I the soil needs additional drainage, the rowareas should be built up into raised beds. The beds shouldbe rom 6 to 10 inches high and 2 to 3 eet wide. Little or noertilizer is needed the frst year. The soil pH should be 6.0to 7.0. Add lime or sulur as needed to adjust the pH into theoptimum range.
Propagation and Planting
Arapaho, Navaho, Choctaw, and Shawnee are patentedvarieties, and may not be legally propagated or sale or oryour own use. Non-patented blackberries may be propagatedreely. Ask your plant supplier i you are in doubt.Erect growing varieties are usually propagated with suck-ers or root cuttings, while the trailing varieties are propagatedby means o tip layers. Both the time o propagation and thetime o planting are inuenced by the habit o growth.
—most nurseries produce plantsrom root cuttings. The root cuttings, 2 to 3 inches long and1/8 inch diameter or larger, are planted in the early spring(March). The rows o cuttings should be rom 1/2 to 1 inchdeep, with cuttings 3 to 6 inches apart in the row. Plants willbe ready or transplanting into the permanent row during theollowing winter.Another method or increasing erect blackberries is romnaturally occurring sucker plants. One year old suckers aredug rom established rows and set into new permanent rows(Figure 2). More sucker plants can be produced by tillingnear existing plants, which breaks the roots and results ingeneration o new plants rom these “cuttings.”Planting may be done at any time during the dormantseason, but most planting is done during February or earlyMarch. Space plants 3 to 4 eet apart in rows that are 6 to 8eet apart. Plants should be set at the same depth at whichthey grew in the nursery row. Unless rain is likely, water thenewly set plants.
Trailing blackberries and semi-erect blackberries
donot usually produce suckers or develop rom root cuttings.An easy, successul method o propagation is by means otip layers (Figure 3). To tip-layer blackberries, place the tipend o the cane into the soil about 2 inches deep and cover itwith soil. This should be done in September or October. Rootswill develop during the late all and winter. Dig the rooted tipsduring February or early March. Cut the tips rom the originalcanes, leaving a 3 or 4 inch section o the cane attached to it.One established plant may produce rom 10 to 20 tip-layeredplants each year. The small amount o the cane cut o withthe newly rooted layer will not noticeably aect the yield othe remaining cane. Space the new plants the same as youwould erect blackberries.
The crowns and root systems o blackberries live or manyyears. However, new canes arise rom the crown each year