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Frequency Distributions and Graphs
1.

Frequency Distributions
A
frequency distribution
is a collection of observations produced by sorting theminto classes and showing their frequency (or numbers) of occurrences in each class.Constructing a frequency distribution is the most convenient way of organizing data.1.1 Basic Types of Frequency Distribution:1.

Categorical frequency distribution
is used for data that can be placed inspecific categories, such as nominal or ordinal level data.
Nominal

–
data that includes names, labels or categories only
Ordinal

–
data are arranged in some order but differences between datavalues either cannot be determined or are meaningless.
Example of

Categorical Frequency Distribution
:The following are obtained from data results of a sample survey with categoriesA, B and C. The third column is called the
column of frequency
.***CUMULATIVE FREQUENCYCategory Tally Frequency (f)A 6B 9C 15Sum = 302.

Frequency Distribution for Ungrouped Data

–
observations are sorted intoclasses of single values.3.

Frequency Distribution for Grouped Data

–
observations are sorted intoclasses of more than one value.The following are the basic terminologies associated with frequencytables.a)

lower class limit

–
the smallest data value that can be included in theclass.b)

Upper class limit

–
the largest data value that can be included in theclass.c)

Class boundaries

–
are used to separate the classes so that there areno gaps in the frequency distribution.d)

Class marks

–
the midpoints of the classes.
llll-lllll-llllllll-llll-llll

2
2limlim
it upper it lower
e)

class width

–
the difference between two consecutive lower classlimits.Example 1:Weekly Expenses of 80 EmployeesWeekly Expenses Number of Employees101
–
300 516501
–
700 11701
–
900 40901 - 1100 8Class width = 301
–
101 = 200
Example 2:
When 40 people were surveyed at Greenbelt 3, they reported thedistance they drove to the mall, and the results ( in kilometers) are given below.2 8 1 5 9 5 14 10 31 2015 4 10 6 5 5 1 8 12 1025 40 31 24 20 20 3 9 15 1525 8 1 1 16 23 18 25 21 12Construct a frequency distribution table.
Cumulative Frequency for a table whose classes are in increasing order
is the sum of the frequencies for that class and all previous classes. It is used when cumulativetotals are desired.
Cumulative frequency for a table whose classes are in decreasing order
is the sum of the frequencies for that class and all succeeding classes.
2.

Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives
Most people comprehend the meaning of data easier if they are presentedgraphically than numerically.
301
–
500variable2
n
classLower limit of The 5
th
classupper limit of The 5
th
classFrequency of the 2
nd
class

3
Histograms

–
display data using vertical bars of various heights to represent thefrequencies.2.2
Frequency Polygon

–
display the data by using lines that connect points plottedfor the frequencies at the midpoints of the classes.2.3

Ogive
–
represents the cumulative frequencies of the classes.2.4

Pie Graph
–
a circle that is divided into sections of wedges according to thepercentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution.Example 3: A survey of 500 fam
ilies were asked the question “
Where are you
planning to spend your vacation this summer?”.
It resulted in the followingdistribution and the corresponding pie graph.Place Number of People PercentageBoracay 200 40%Palawan 125 25%Tagaytay 90 18%Baguio 35 7%None of the Above 50 10%
frequencyClass boundariesfreuencClass midpointscumulativefrequencyClass boundaries
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