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Transgenerational effects of heavy metals on L3 larva of Caenorhabditis elegans with greater behavior and growth inhibitions in the progeny

Transgenerational effects of heavy metals on L3 larva of Caenorhabditis elegans with greater behavior and growth inhibitions in the progeny

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Published by slartibartfastibast

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651312004174

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651312004174

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: slartibartfastibast on Dec 29, 2012
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09/17/2013

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[uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} cj lbazv hb{ao} cn O= oauza cj 
Mabnculaekf{f}bobdan}
tf{l duba{bu eblazfcu ank duct{l fnlfef{fcn} fn {lb yucdbnv
WlbnVand Vr/ \fac\rb Mlbn/ Gfnd Wland/ Urf Tand/ KaQfand Vfn
n
@bv Oaecua{cuv cj Vand{wb Ufzbu Ta{bu Bnzfucnhbn{/ Hfnf}{uv cj Bkrma{fcn/ Mcoobdb cj Bnzfucnhbn{ao ]mfbnmb ank Bndfnbbufnd/ [cndgf Rnfzbu}f{v/ ]landlaf 599965/ YU Mlfna
a u { f m o b f n j c
 Au{fmob lf}{cuv7
Ubmbfzbk 2 Cm{cebu 5915Ubmbfzbk fn ubzf}bk jcuh6 Nczbhebu 5915Ammby{bk 19 Nczbhebu 5915Azafoaeob cnofnb ; Kbmbhebu 5915
@bvtcuk}7
Lbazv hb{ao[uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{
Mabnculaekf{f} bobdan}
O= }{adbEblazfcuDuct{l
a e } { u a m {
Lbazv hb{ao} aub refqrf{cr} bnzfucnhbn{ao ycoor{an{}/ ank {lbfu {c|fm bjjbm{} lazb ebbn tfkbov}{rkfbk. Lctbzbu/ {lbfu {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} eb{tbbn yaubn{ ank yucdbnv a{ bnzfucnhbn{aoubobzan{ mcnmbn{ua{fcn} nbbk jru{lbu fnzb}{fda{fcn}. Mruubn{ov/ O= }{adb cj 
Mabnculaekf{f} bobdan}
ta}b|yc}bk {c aqrbcr} hb{ao} ,Mk/ Mr/ Ye ank Wn& a{ bnzfucnhbn{aoov ubaof}{fm mcnmbn{ua{fcn} jcu 6: l. [lbtlcob b|yc}rub {fhb mczbubk {lb jcuha{fcn cj }ybuh/ czrh ank bdd}. ]re}bqrbn{ov {lb eblazfcu ankduct{l fnkfma{cu} tbub hba}rubk. [lb yaubn{ nbha{ckb} tbub {lbn eobamlbk {c dafn }vnmlucnfwbkbdd}/ tlfml tbub mro{rubk rnkbu ncn({c|fm mcnkf{fcn} {c O= }{adb tlbn {lb }ahb fnkfma{cu} tbubhba}rubk fn {lb yucdbnv. [lb yaubn{ }rjjbubk mcnmbn{ua{fcn(kbybnkbn{ fnlfef{fcn} cn eblazfcu ankduct{l. Ea}bk cn {lb hbkfan bjjbm{fzb mcnmbn{ua{fcn ,BM
29
& zaorb}/ eckv ebnkfnd jubqrbnmv }lctbkuboa{fzbov lfdlbu }bn}f{fzf{v {lan c{lbu eblazfcu fnkfma{cu}. [lb fnlfef{fcn} cn duct{l ank eblazfcu cj yucdbnv tbub hcub }bzbub {lan {lc}b cj {lb yaubn{/ ea}bk cn {lbfu ub}ybm{fzb BM
29
zaorb}. Fn{bub}{fndov/Mk ta} nc{ {lb hc}{ {c|fm hb{ao fn bf{lbu yaubn{ cu yucdbnv ammcukfnd {c BM
29
zaorb}/ er{ f{} BM
29
ua{fc}eb{tbbn yaubn{ ank yucdbnv ,BM
29/ yaubn{
#BM
29/ yucdbnv
& tbub {lb hc}{ }fdnffiman{/ fnkfma{fnd f{} duba{b}{{uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{}. [lb ub}ro{} kbhcn}{ua{bk {lb lfdlbu }bn}f{fzf{v cj O= oauza }{adb cj 
M. bobdan}
fn {lb {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{ }{rkfb} {lan c{lbu ofjb }{adb} r}bk ebjcub. Cru finkfnd} }rddb}{bk {la{yaubn{ao b|yc}rub {c lbazv hb{ao} man hro{fyov {lbfu lauhjro bjjbm{} fn jcooctfnd dbnbua{fcn}.
*
5915 Bo}bzfbu Fnm. Aoo ufdl{} ub}buzbk.
1. Fn{uckrm{fcn
Lbazv hb{ao} aub refqrf{cr} ycoor{an{} tcuoktfkb. Krb {c{lbfu ybu}f}{bnmb ank ammrhroa{fcn fn {lb bnzfucnhbn{/ ank {lbfuefc(hadnffima{fcn fn cudanf}h} zfa jcck mlafn {uan}jbu/ {lbv aubdafnfnd hcub bmcocdfmao ank yreofm mcnmbun} ,Mafn b{ ao./ 59110Vf b{ ao./ 5911&. Ammcukfndov/ {lbfu akzbu}b bjjbm{} lazb ebbn tfkbov}{rkfbk. [lbv man mar}b kba{l/ duct{l ank eblazfcu fnlfef{fcn}/ank c|fka{fzb }{ub}}b} cn nrhbucr} cudanf}h} ,Auahea˄ }fm»b{ ao./16620FAUM/ 16640Klatan b{ ao./ 59990Ankbu}cn b{ ao./ 59910Ecvk b{ ao./ 599=0Yfnlc ank Efanmlfnf/ 5919&. Lctbzbu/ hc}{ cj {lb bjjbm{} tbub ce}buzbk tf{lfn cnb dbnbua{fcn cj {lb {b}{ cudanf}h/tlfob {lb {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} aub fnmuba}fndov ubmcdnfwbk a}cnb muf{fmao a}ybm{ cj {c|fmf{v }{rkfb}.[lb ylua}b cj {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} hban} {la{ {lb yau(bn{ao b|ybufbnmb} fn muf{fmao kbzbocyhbn{ }{adb} lazb fnſtrbnmb}cn {lb ylbnc{vyb/ eblazfcu ank bzbn lbao{l#kf}ba}b cj {lbyucdbnv. [lr}/ {lb {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} aub ubjbuubk a} ““{lbkbzbocyhbn{ao cufdfn} cj lbao{l ank kf}ba}b‖,]tan}cn b{ ao./59960Wbnd b{ ao./ 5911&/ ank {lbubjcub man eb r}bk {c fnkfma{b {lb ocnd({buh mcn}bqrbnmb}. Lbazv hb{ao} lak ebbn ubycu{bk {cyuczc`b {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{}. B|yc}rub {c mcyybu ,Mr& krufnd{lb yaubn{ao kbzbocyhbn{ }{adb} cj 
Yuc{cylcuhfa {buuabnczab
,ſtv&ub}ro{bk fn fhhrnb ub}ycn}b} tlfml tbub bzbn ayyaubn{ fn {lbcjj}yufnd {la{ ta} nc{ b|yc}bk {c {lb lbazv hb{ao ,Y¬co``f b{ ao./5915&. Ao{lcrdl {lb }{rkv mcn}fkbubk {lb fnſtrbnmb cj bauovyaubn{ao kbzbocyhbn{/ f{ cnov bhyocvbk cnb b|yc}rub mcnmbn{ua({fcn/ tlfml ta} kfjfimro{ {c kuat anv mcnmbn{ua{fcn(kbybnkbn{mcnmor}fcn}.[lb {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} cj mceao{ ,Mc& ,Tand b{ ao./5994e&/ fcn ,Jb& ,Lr b{ ao./ 599<&/ nfm`bo ,Nf& ,Tand ank Tand/ 599<&/ obak ,Ye& ,Tand ank Vand/ 5994& ank wfnm ,Wn& ,Tand b{ ao./ 5994a& lazb ebbn kbhcn}{ua{bk ev {lb kbmuba}bk ocmchc({fcn ank eckv }fwb} fn {lb rnb|yc}bk cjj}yufnd cj yaubn{aoovb|yc}bk
Mabnculaekf{f} bobdan}
,nbha{ckb&. Ao{lcrdl {lb}b }{r(kfb} mcn}fkbubk hro{fyob mcnmbn{ua{fcn} fn {lb b|ybufhbn{}/ {lbvbhyocvbk O; oauza }{adb ,b|mby{ an rn(fkbn{ffibk ofjb }{adb fn{lb }{rkv cn Nf&/ tlfml f} nc{ ybu}ra}fzb bncrdl {c ubyub}bn{ {lbbauov yaubn{ao kbzbocyhbn{ ammcukfnd {c {lb ofjb mvmob cj 
M.bobdan}
.[lb nbha{ckb
M. bobdan}
f} a dcck anfhao hckbo jcu bmc{c|(fmcocdfmao }{rkfb} ebmar}b cj f{} aernkanmb fn }cfo bmc}v}{bh/f{ f} mcnzbnfbn{ lankofnd fn {lb oaecua{cuv/ ank f{} uboa{fzb lfdl}bn}f{fzf{v {c kfjjbubn{ `fnk} cj }{ub}}b} cu {c|fman{} ,Obrnd b{ ao./
Mcn{bn{} of}{} azafoaeob a{]mfZbu}b ]mfbnmbKfubm{gcrunao lchbyadb7ttt.bo}bzfbu.mch#ocma{b#bmcbnz
Bmc{c|fmcocdv ank Bnzfucnhbn{ao ]ajb{v
91;4(:21=#+(}bb jucn{ ha{{bu
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5915 Bo}bzfbu Fnm. Aoo ufdl{} ub}buzbk.l{{y7##k|.kcf.cud#19.191:#g.bmcbnz.5915.11.915
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599<&. [lf} jubb ofzfnd nbha{ckb f} hc}{ov }fndob }boj(jbu{fofwfndlbuhayluckf{b tf{l an cmma}fcnao uaub haob ,Eoa|{bu ank Kbnzbu/5915&. F{ fiu}{ yuckrmb} }ybuh a{ O; }{adb ank {lbn }{cub} f{ {cjbu{fofwb {lb bdd} {la{ kbzbocy oa{bu fn kbzbocyhbn{ ,Lfoo b{ ao./599:&. [lbubjcub/ {lb ajcubhbn{fcnbk b|yc}rub a{ O; }{adb havnc{ fnmorkb aoo cj {lb }ybuh yuckrm{fcn. Fn}{bak/ O= }{adb cj 
M.bobdan}
tfoo }buzb eb{{bu {c ubyub}bn{ {lb bauov yaubn{ao kbzbocy(hbn{/ ank }lcrok yuczc`b duba{bu {uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} cn {lbyucdbnv.Zaufcr} fnkfma{cu} cj 
M. bobdan}
lazb ebbn r}bk {c bormfka{b {lb{c|fmf{v cj lbazv hb{ao}. A mchhcn ayyucaml {c a}}b}} {lb lbao{l}{a{r} fn
M. bobdan}
f} {c hba}rub f{} ocmchc{fcn eblazfcu ,kb Ecncank Haufmq/ 5992&. A} ubzfbtbk evObrnd b{ ao. ,599<&/ a kbjbm{ fn {lb nbha{ckb ocmchc{fcn ubſtbm{} an fhyafuhbn{ cj {lb nbrucnaonb{tcu`. Cnb ubmbn{ }{rkv ao}c kbhcn}{ua{bk {lb mcuuboa{fcn,
U
5
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9.6:6/
c
9.91& eb{tbbn eblazfcu ,eckv ebnk& ank ubam{fzbc|vdbn }ybmfb} ,UC]& yuckrm{fcn ,Tr b{ ao./ 5915e&. Anc{lbu dbnbuaocj nbha{ckb lbao{l yauahb{bu f} {lb eckv obnd{l ,eckv }fwb cuduct{l&/ tlfml la} ebbn tfkbov r}bk fn bauofbu ubycu{} ,Ankbu}cnb{ ao./ 59910Ecvk b{ ao./ 599=0Tand b{ ao./ 5994e0Vr b{ ao./ 5915e&. Fn {lb yub}bn{ }{rkv/ jcru {vyfmao lbazv hb{ao}/ makhfrh ,Mk&/Mr/ Ye ank Wn/ tbub mlc}bn a} {b}{bk mlbhfmao}. [lb}b jcru lbazvhb{ao} r}raoov yauaoobobk fn {lbfu cmmruubnmb} ank bzbn czbuocak}fn ta{bu ank }bkfhbn{}/ ank {lbfu bnzfucnhbn{ao mcnmbn{ua{fcn}tbub r}raoov a{
h
hco#O ank hhco#O ,Wlbnd b{ ao./ 599<0]rub}l b{ ao./ 59150Tand b{ ao./ 59150Vr b{ ao./ 5915a&. Mruubn{ov/ O= }{adb cj 
M. bobdan}
ta} b|yc}bk {c aqrbcr} hb{ao} ,Mr/ Ye/ Mk ankWn& a{ bnzfucnhbn{aoov ubaof}{fm mcnmbn{ua{fcn} jcu 6: l/ ank {lbn{lb eblazfcu ank duct{l fnlfef{fcn} cn {lb b|yc}bk yaubn{ ,
9
&tbub hba}rubk. [lb rnb|yc}bk yucdbnv ,
1
& ta} }byaua{bk ank{lb }ahb fnkfma{cu} tbub hba}rubk. A} b|ybm{bk/ O= }{adb cj nbha{ckb} fnkbbk }lctbk lfdlbu }bn}f{fzf{v {lan O; }{adb. [lb{uan}dbnbua{fcnao bjjbm{} cj lbazv hb{ao} a{ bnzfucnhbn{aoovubaof}{fm mcnmbn{ua{fcn} fnkfma{bk {la{ yaubn{ao b|yc}rub manhro{fyov {lb lauhjro bjjbm{} cj lbazv hb{ao ycoor{fcn fn jcooctfnddbnbua{fcn}.
5. Ha{bufao} ank hb{lck}
 5.1. [b}{bk mlbhfmao}
]{cm`}cor{fcn}cjMrMo
5
/Ye,NC
=
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tbubyubyaubktf{l}{bufofwbk @(hbkfrh ,Tfoofah} ank Kr}bnebuv/ 1669&. Fn an bauofbu ubycu{ ,Ankbu}cn b{ ao./ 5991&/ {lb hbkfan ob{lao mcnmbn{ua{fcn ,OM
29
& zaorb cj Mr
5
þ
ta} 669
h
hco#O/ank {lb hbkfan bjjbm{fzb mcnmbn{ua{fcn ,BM
29
& zaorb} cn hczbhbn{ tbub 149
h
hco#O/ank ;4
h
hco#O jcu Mk
5
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ank Ye
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/ ub}ybm{fzbov. Hbantlfob/ 599
h
hco#O cj Wn
5
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mar}bk ayyuc|fha{bov 29 ybumbn{ fnlfef{fcn cn eckv ebnk} cj 
M. bobdan}
,Tand b{ ao./5994a&. Ea}bk cn {lb yreof}lbk ka{a/ {lb mcnmbn{ua{fcn} cj baml hb{ao fn {lb yub}bn{}{rkv tbub }bobm{bk cn {lb a{{bhy{ {c azcfk mchyob{b }ryyub}}fcn cn nbha{ckb} ank{c ubyub}bn{ bnzfucnhbn{aoov ubaof}{fm mcnmbn{ua{fcn} a{ {lb }ahb {fhb. [lb mcnmbn({ua{fcn} tbub 9.955”559
h
hco#O jcu Mk/ 9.9;4”;49
h
hco#O jcu Mr/ 9.99;<”;<.9
h
hco#O jcu Ye/ ank 9.9=<”=<9
h
hco#O jcu Wn. Baml hb{ao la} fizb mcnmbn{ua{fcn}/ tlfml tbubkfor{bk juch mcuub}ycnkfnd }{cm`fnd }cor{fcn} tf{l }{bufofwbk @(hbkfrh. [lb am{raohb{aomcnmbn{ua{fcn}tbubkb{buhfnbkevduaylf{bjrunamba{chfmae}cuy{fcn}ybm{uc(hb{uv ,Ybu`fn(Bohbu/ AA(:99& ,]an{c} b{ ao./ 599<0Vr b{ ao./ 5915e&.
 5.5. Yubyaua{fcn cj nbha{ckbM. bobdan}
,tfok({vyb N5& ank
B. mcof
CY29 ,{lb nbha{ckb jcck&/ ec{l }{cm`bkcn a nbha{ckb duct{l hbkfrh ,NDH& adau a{ ;
1
M fn {lb kau`/ tbub `fnk dfj{}juch Fn}{f{r{b cj Kbzbocyhbn{ Efcocdv ank Hcobmroau Hbkfmfnb/ Jrkan Rnfzbu}f{v/]landlaf/ Mlfna. [lb yubyaua{fcn cj nbha{ckb} tbub ybujcuhbk ammcukfnd {cbauofbu ubycu{} ,Eubnnbu/ 164;&. Jfu}{/
B. mcof
CY29 ta} fncmroa{bk juch {lb }{cm`bkNDH adau fn{c }{bufob ov}cdbnv euc{l ,OE& mro{rub hbkfrh ,19 d {uvy{cnb/ 2 dvba}{ b|{uam{ ank 19 d NaMo fn 1 O kf}{foobk ta{bu/ ar{cmoazbk a{ 151
1
M jcu 59 hfnank mccobk {c ucch {bhybua{rub ebjcub r}bk&. [lb eam{bufa tbub fnmrea{bk tf{l a}la`fnd }ybbk cj 1<9 uyh a{ =4
1
M jcu 5;”;< l/ krufnd tlfml {lb NDH adau ta}yubyaubk a} jcooct}7 ,1& = d NaM1/ 5.2 yby{cnb ank 14 d adau fn 642 hO kf}{foobkta{bu0 ,5& aj{bu ar{cmoazfnd a{ 151
1
M jcu 59 hfn/ 1 hO mlcob}{buco fn b{lanco,2 hd#hO&/ 1 hO H MaMo
5
/ 1 hO H Hd]C
;
/ ank 52 hO H @
=
YC
;
erjjbu ,yL :.9& aubakkbk fn cukbu/ tlbn {lb adau ta} ;9”29
1
M0 ,=& {lb NDH adau ta} ycrubk fn{c}{bufob Yb{uf kf}lb} ,:9 hh& {c mcco kctn {c ucch {bhybua{rub.
B. mcof
CY29}r}ybn}fcn} ,ayyuc|fha{bov 129”599
h
O& tbub }yubak cn {lb NDH adau}/ tlfmltbub `by{ a{ =4
1
M jcu 5; l {c jcuh eam{bufao oatn ank ta} mccobk kctn {c 59
1
M.[lbn/ tf{l {lb lboy cj }{bufob yfyb{{b {fy/ cnb bfdl{l cj {lb }{cm`bk NDH adau/ tf{lnbha{ckb} cn f{/ ta} mr{ cjj ank {uan}jbuubk cn{c {lb jub}lov yubyaubk NDH adau},< fn {c{ao& tf{l {lb eam{bufao oatn. [lb < NDH adau} tf{l nbha{ckb} tbub `by{ fna 59
1
M fnmrea{cu jcu ; k.Cn {lb jcru{l kav/
M. bobdan}
ta} ta}lbk cjj baml cj {lb < NDH adau} tf{l1.2 hO }{bufob ta{bu/ ank {uan}jbuubk {c a 12 hO }{bufob mbn{ufjrdb {reb ,ayyuc|f(ha{bov 15 hO fn {c{ao&. Aj{bu 59”=9 hfn aooctfnd {lb nbha{ckb} {c }b{{ob/ : hO }rybuna{an{} tbub kb}bu{bk/ ank {lb nbha{ckb} fn {lb obj{ : hO tbub fncmroa{bkcn{c =9 jub}lov yubyaubk NDH adau} tf{l {lb eam{bufao oatn ,ayyuc|fha{bov599
h
O cn baml&. Aj{bu fnmrea{fcn a{ 59
1
M jcu anc{lbu ; k/ nbha{ckb} cn {lb =9NDH adau} tbub fncmroa{bk cn{c 159 NDH adau} tf{l {lb eam{bufao oatn fn {lb}ahb tav. Tlbn nbha{ckb} cn {lb 159 NDH adau} tbub fnmrea{bk jcu ; k/ {lbvtbub fncmroa{bk cn{c ;<9 NDH adau} tf{l {lb eam{bufao oatn. Jcooctfnd fnmrea({fcn a{ 59
1
M jcu 5 k/ {lb nbha{ckb} tbub ubakv jcu adb }vnmlucnfwa{fcn.[lb duazfk nbha{ckb} ank nbtov yuckrmbk bdd} tbub ta}lbk cjj {lb ;<9adau} ,5 hO }{bufob ta{bu jcu baml adau& ank mcoobm{bk fn{c ;< }{bufob mbn{ufjrdb{reb} ,12 hO fn baml&. Aj{bu =9 hfn aooctfnd {lb nbha{ckb} {c }b{{ob/ 1= h}rybuna{an{} tbub kb}bu{bk/ ank fn baml mbn{ufjrdb {reb tbub akkbk 15 hO jub}lMocuc| }cor{fcn} mcn{afnfnd 9.2 H NaCL ank 1 ybumbn{ NaCMo ,kfor{bk juchan{fjcuhfn/ ;”: ybumbn{/ ]fncylauh Ducry Mc. O{k./ Mlfna& ,Bhhcn} b{ ao./1646&. Aj{bu 19”12 hfn/ {lb mbn{ufjrdb {reb} tbub mbn{ufjrdbk a{ 5299 uyh jcu= hfn a{ 59
1
M. Tf{l }rybuna{an{} kb}bu{bk/ 19 hO }{bufob ta{bu tbub akkbk fnbaml mbn{ufjrdb {reb} {c ta}l {lb Mocuc| }cor{fcn cjj {lb bdd}/ jcooctbk ev ambn{ufjrda{fcn a{ 5299 uyh jcu = hfn a{ 59
1
M. [lb ta}l yucmbkrub ta} ubyba{bk{tfmb. [lbn/ {lb }vnmlucnfwbk bdd} fn baml {reb tbub ub}r}ybnkbk tf{l 599
h
}{bufob @(hbkfrh ank fncmroa{bk cn{c a NDH adau tf{l {lb eam{bufao oatn ,;<adau} fn {c{ao& jcu =: l {c ce{afn O= nbha{ckb} ,Zan Dfo}{ b{ ao./ 5992&. [lb uba}cntlv O= nbha{ckb} tbub mlc}bn jcu {c|fmf{v {b}{} ta} {c mczbu {lb O;(akro{ hco{/tlbn {lb nbha{ckb }ybuh/ czrh ank bdd} }{au{ {c jcuh ,Lfoo b{ ao./ 599:&/ }c a} {cyuczfkb a tfnkct jcu yubna{ao b|yc}rub. Ebjcub r}bk/ O= nbha{ckb} tbub ta}lbkcjj {lb NDH adau} ank ja}{bk fn }{bufob @(hbkfrh jcu 5 l {c kfdb}{ {lb jcck fn {lbdr{} ,Ubfn`b b{ ao./ 5919&.
 5.=. [c|fmf{v b|ybufhbn{ kb}fdn
[lb {c|fmf{v b|ybufhbn{} tbub ybujcuhbk ammcukfnd {c yubzfcr} }{rkv tf{l}chb hckffima{fcn} ,Tand b{ ao./ 5994e&. [lb eufbj }{by} aub a} jcooct}. [lbb|yc}rub {c {lb nbha{ckb} ta} ybujcuhbk fn {lb 6:(tboo }{bufob mro{rub yoa{b}tf{l < uct} ank 15 mcorhn}. [tc lbazv hb{ao}/ fizb mcnmbn{ua{fcn} jcu baml/ tbubauuandbk fn 19 mcorhn} tf{l < tboo} a} yauaoobo jcu baml mcnmbn{ua{fcn. @(hbkfrhta} auuandbk fn {lb obj{ {tc mcorhn} a} {lb mcn{uco}. [lbn/ O= nbha{ckb} tbubakkbk fn {lb tboo}. Baml {b}{ tboo {vyfmaoov mcn{afnbk 199
h
O hb{ao }cor{fcn} ank199
h
O @(hbkfrh mcn{afnfnd 199 nbha{ckb}. Aoo b|yc}rub} oa}{bk 6: l ank tbubmauufbk cr{ fn {lb ae}bnmb cj jcck a{ 59
1
M. Aj{bu {lb b|yc}rub/ nbha{ckb} juch= tboo} jcu baml cj {lb fizb hb{ao mcnmbn{ua{fcn} ank : tboo} cj {lb mcn{uco tbubmcoobm{bk fn{c ub}ybm{fzb 1.2 hO mbn{ufjrdb {reb}. Aj{bu =9 hfn aooctfnd {lbnbha{ckb} {c }b{{ob/ {lb nbha{ckb} fn {lb ec{{ch tbub {uan}jbuubk fn{c nbt1.2 hO mbn{ufjrdb {reb}/ tlbub {lbv tbub ta}lbk tf{l 1 hO }{bufob ta{bu. Aj{bu=9 hfn cj }b{{obhbn{/ {lb nbha{ckb} fn {lb ec{{ch tbub r}bk jcu {lb fnkfma{cuhba}rubhbn{} cj {lb b|yc}bk dbnbua{fcn hau`bk a}
9
.Cn {lb c{lbu lank/ nbha{ckb} juch {lb 2 ubhafnfnd tboo} jcu baml cj {lb fizbmcnmbn{ua{fcn} ank 19 tboo} cj {lb mcn{uco tbub mcoobm{bk fn{c ub}ybm{fzb 1.2 hO mbn{ufjrdb {reb} ,1 {reb jcu baml hb{ao mcnmbn{ua{fcn ank 5 {reb} jcu {lb mcn{uco&.Aj{bu =9 hfn aooctfnd {lb nbha{ckb} {c }b{{ob/ {lb nbha{ckb} fn {lb ec{{ch tbub{uan}jbuubk fn{c nbt 1.2 hO mbn{ufjrdb {reb} ,1 {reb jcu baml {uba{hbn{&/ tlbub{lbv tbub ta}lbk tf{l 1 hO }{bufob ta{bu. Aj{bu =9 hfn cj }b{{obhbn{/ {lbnbha{ckb} fn {lb ec{{ch tbub {uan}jbuubk {c {c|fman{(jubb NDH adau} tf{l {lbeam{bufao oatn. [lb nbha{ckb} tbub aooctbk {c duct jcu =: l {c yuc(krmb bncrdl bdd} jcu {lb ajcubhbn{fcnbk adb(}vnmlucnfwa{fcn ,Bhhcn} b{ ao./1646&/ aj{bu tlfml {lb adb(}vnmlucnfwbk bdd} tbub aooctbk {c duct cn NDH adau}tf{l {lb eam{bufao oatn jcu anc{lbu =: l. [lbn/ {lb nbha{ckb} tbub mcoobm{bk fn{cub}ybm{fzb 1.2 hO mbn{ufjrdb {reb}. Aj{bu =9 hfn aooctfnd {lb nbha{ckb} {c }b{{ob/{lb nbha{ckb} fn {lb ec{{ch tbub {uan}jbuubk fn{c nbt 1.2 hO mbn{ufjrdb {reb}/tlbub {lbv tbub ta}lbk tf{l 1 hO }{bufob ta{bu. Aj{bu =9 hfn cj }b{{obhbn{/ {lbnbha{ckb} fn {lb ec{{ch tbub r}bk jcu }re}bqrbn{ fnkfma{cu hba}rubhbn{} cj {lb yucdbnv ,
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 5.;. Duct{l ank eblazfcu fnkfma{cu 
Duct{lankeblazfcufnkfma{cu}tbubkb{buhfnbkankmaomroa{bkammcukfnd{ccruyubzfcr} }{rkv ,Vr b{ ao./ 5911/5915e&. Eufbſtv/ {lb nbha{ckb} tbub {uan}jbuubk cn NDH adau tf{lcr{ {lb eam{bufao oatn. Aj{bu 5 l aooctfnd ta{bu bzaycua{b/ {lbnbha{ckb} tbub may{rubk tf{l {lb kf}}bm{fnd hfmuc}mcyb. [lb fhadb} may{rubk ev{lb kf}}bm{fnd hfmuc}mcyb tbub r}bk. A }bqrbnmb cj ycovofnb} ta} kuatn jcooctfnd
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{lb nbha{ckb}‖ hfkofnb juch {lb lbak {c {lb {afo ank eam` {c {lb lbak. [lb eckvobnd{l ta} maomroa{bk a} EO 
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