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Psychiatric Nursing Map for Students

Psychiatric Nursing Map for Students

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Published by ehjing

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: ehjing on Feb 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/18/2013

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The PSYCH MAP explains a lot of concepts needed in the study of Psychiatric Nursing. I hope that this will help you in your study.First, you have to click on the picture above in order to enlarge it.Then click on this icon on the right lower portion of the screen to further enlarge the picture.Save the picture in your computer.Open and print the picture (landscape format).Place the picture above your bed, beside your study table, in front of your bowl (CR), at the mirror, ceiling and floor.Memorize and Enjoy!The center or the word NORMAL represents a state in which there is equilibrium or the absence of any problem. If you encounter problems or stressors, you will become ANXIOUS andyour Sympathetic Nervous System SNS will be activated. Epinephrine and norepinephrine will be released. In severe cases, medications are given. The main purpose of the medicationgiven for anxiety is to decrease the action of the SNS. GABA decreases your SNS and further to your left, you will see a list of medications used to decrease anxiety (VLASTMEVAIB).zepam, zepine and zolam are the common ending letters of these anxiolytic medications. It will take 3 to 4 weeks until these drugs take effect. While taking these drugs, you should watchout for anticholinergic effects such as constipation and urinary retention. It is important to remember that there are safety precautions when taking these drugs. You should not drivebecause these drugs can make you drowsy which means that you should not engage yourself in an activity which requires alertness (ex. driving, operating a machine). You may alsoexperience orthostatic hypotension. You should not drink alcohol because it is a depressant and this will potentiate the effect of the drug. On the other hand, you are also not allowed todrink coffee. It is a stimulant that counteracts the effect of your anxiolytic drugs, and besides, you are taking medications to decrease the stimulants causing your anxiety. Anxiolytic drugsor anti-anxiety drugs may lead to dependence. Withdrawal from these drugs are done gradually to prevent seizures.There are lots of theories explaining the cause of SCHIZOPHRENIA. One theory states that there is an increase in the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for cognition and regulation of emotional responses, it is generally a stimulant. Different kinds of drugs are given to a schizophrenic patient (SSTTCHAMPZR), these drugsare called Neuroleptics or Antipsychotics. The main action of these drugs is to decrease Dopamine or its effects. Ldol and azine are the common ending letters of these drugs. Sideeffects of these drugs include, agranulocytosis (which has an early symptom of sore throat) and photosensitivity (use wide brimmed hat). When Dopamine is severely decreased duringthe use of neuroleptic drugs, ACETYLCHOLINE – DOPAMINE balance is affected, when this happens, Pseudoparkinsonism and EPSE will manifest (NMS fatal). In order to bringequilibrium, two types of drugs are given, the ANTICHOLINERGIC drugs (AABC) which decreases Acetylcholine and the DOPAMINERGIC drugs (PLES) which increases the Dopamine.To remember the two types of drugs you must remember the word CAPABLES.When norepinephine is increased, there is a distinct period during which, a mood of a person is constantly elated or persistently high, we consider this to be a manic episode or MANIA.When this happens, we place the person to be at risk for injury because of impulsive actions. He is also monitored for nutritional imbalance due to loss of attention and focus on his ownbasic needs. Lithium is the drug of choice for mania. A narrow level of 0.6 to 1.2 meq/L must be maintained. Toxicity is manifested by gastro intestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomitingand diarrhea (VANDA). To avoid this, give liberal amount of fluid intake (3L/day). This is also the reason why we don’t combine this drug with a Diuretic. Diamox (a drug also used for Vertigo) is the antidote for lithium toxicity. Avoid strenuous activities which may lead to cardiac collapse. Monitor the kidney function because this drug is nephrotoxic. It takes 2-4 weeksbefore you see the effects of this drug.Serotonin makes us happy. MAO is a substance which decreases the amount of serotonin present in our body. If serotonin level falls, depression takes place. Depression is a state inwhich a person’s mood is persistently low. There are different types of medications given to people who are depressed. First, the SSRI, this medication aims to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in our body which means that the usual serotonin will be made available in the synapses for a longer period of time. Second is the TCA, this drug works just like the SSRIexcept that it has a different target neurotransmitter which is the norepinephrine. Third is the MAOI, a MAOI inhibits the action of a MAO therefore it inhibits the breakdown of 

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