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disraeli and tory democracy

disraeli and tory democracy

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Published by mary eng
disraeli and tory democracy
disraeli and tory democracy

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Published by: mary eng on Dec 30, 2012
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12/30/2012

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130
A'ilSTORYOFMODERNBRITAIN
eraandplacedtheblameforitsquarelyontht:shouldersofthebrewinginterests.Manypoliticiansbelievedthatdrunkennesswaspreferabletoanycontrol)fthetradebyGovernment,anditwasameasureofGladstone'smoralc.>uragethathetookupthequestionat'111.HisHomeSecretary,Bruce,introducedameasurewhichfixedtheclosingtimesofpublichousesattwelv.~midnighti...thetownsandeleveno'cJc.ckinthecountry.Inareaswheret)Omanypublichousesexistedsomewereclosed,whileotherregulati,mspreventedtheadulterationofdrinl..Thesemildandsensiblemeasuresarousedtheviolentoppositionofth('brewinginterests,Theyorganizl'dthemselvesintheConservativeinterestandspreadanti-Literalpropagrndathroughthepublichouses.TheConservativesintheirturnencouragedthebrewers,EventheBishopofPett:rboroughdeclaredthathepreferred'EnglandfreeratherthanEnglandsober'.
14.DisraeliandToryDemocracy
ReasonsforConservati,~victory,1874Gladstone'sreformshadarousedvigorousoppositionfrommanyquart~rs,TheLicensingBillshadthrownthebrewinginterestsintothearmsoftheConservativeParty,withpublichousesthemselvesascentresforConserva-tivepropaganda.TheArmyreformshadstruckaseriousblowatoldfamilyprivilegesintheforces,whiletheHouseofLordshadbeenexas-peratedbyGladstone'sdetermineduseofOrdersinCounciltogetroundtheiropposition.TheNonconformistsresentedthecreationofstateschoolsandthesupportgiventotheschoolsoftheAnglicanChurch.Thetradeunions,manyofwhosemostskilledandintelligentmembershadbeenenfranchisedbythesecondReformBillof1867,wereangeredbytheCriminalLawAmendmentAct.Inforeignpolicy,Gladstone'sopponentsmadecapitaloutoftheAlabamadecisionwhichwentagainstBritain,whilethedefeatofFranceinthewarof1870wasattributedtoGladstone'spolicyofneutrality.Alargeproportionoftheelectoratewasstillupperandmiddleclass,whereasmanyofthosewhohadbenefitedfromGladstone'sreformshadnovote.Theresultwasthateveryelementofthe'establish-ment'
-
Irishpeers,Anglicanbishops,theoldmilitaryfamilies,thebrewinginterests-opposedGladstone,andthetradeunionistsinthetownsgavethefinalblow.Disraeliwasreturnedtopowerwithasubstantialmajority.BenjaminDisraeliandSo)CialeformDisraeliwasamanofgreatversatilitybothasanovelistandbpolitician.Hehopedtocombinethenewdemocratictrendswithbothth,~virtuesoftheoldaristocracyanc!thepowerofEmpire,bindingthemtogetherwithintheframeworkofBriti~hconstitutionalmonarchy(seeChaJ:ter8).HebelievedthatBritainshouldextendhercivilizinginfluencea;widelyaspossibleintheworld,andintheraceforpower,BritainmustnotbeleftbehindtherisingempiJesofGermanyandofRussia.Athome,DisraelisawmoreclearlythanenyotherConservativestat~smanofthenineteenthcenturytheneedtoconvincethe'masses'thatprogressivesocialreformwasnotonlyintroducedbyLiberalsandRadicals.InthishehadanableanddedicatedassistantinRichardCross,theHomeSecretary.1beArtisans'DwellingsAct,1875ThegrowthofpopulationinLondonandthebigcitieshadputimmenseForeignpolicyBritainhadnotcommittedherarmytoanymajorinterventioninEurope
since
1815
andGladstone'sforeignpolicywasbasedonhisrecognitionof
thefactthatthesmallBritisharmywasnomatchforthevastContinentalmilitarymachines,especiallythatofPrussia.HekeptthecountryoutoftheFranco-PrussianwarthoughhedidmanagetosecureaguaranteeoftheneutralityofBelgiumfrombothBismarckandNapoleonIII.TheGovernmentwerealsounabletopreventRussiaunilaterallydenouncingtheBlackSeaClausesoftheTreatyofParisof1856(seep.92).EveninthelastyearsofPalmerston'sadministrationithadbeenobviousthatBritishinfluenceinEuropehaddeclined,buttheapparentweaknessofGladstone'sforeignpolicywasveryunpopular.Gladstoneparticularlyarousedpublicopinioninhishandlingofthe
Alabama
dispute(seep.85).VerysensiblyheagreedtosubmitthequestionofcompensationtotheUnitedStatestoaninternationaltribunal,buttoanationwhichhadonlyrecentlybeenapplaudingthejauntyjingoismofPalmerstolJhisactionseemedcowardlyandunpatriotic.HisreputationsufferedstillfurtherwhenthetribunalawardedtheUnitt'dStates£3,500,000damages.

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