(3) Do not allow the motor to run for long
periods at idle or very slow speed. Carbon builds
up rapidly in slow-running, 2-cycle engines.
(4) Slow the engine before changing fromneutral to forward or reverse. A fast impropershift can cause engine breakdown in a critical
situation.(5) Allow the motor to warm up before oper-
ating at high speed. Accelerate and decelerate
smoothly to avoid straining the engine.
b. Preventive Maintenance.
(1) Keep the boat and motor clean and lubri-cated according to the technical manual (TM) forthe item. Particular emphasis is necessary on boat
fittings, underwater body, and motor lower unit.
water, take the
operating in brackish or salt
boat out of the water after use.
Section II. RIVER
D-3. Navigation Techniques
The techniques discussed in succeeding para-
graphs are applicable to all northern area rivers
The waterways throughout the northern areaof operations are potential lines of communication
for operations in these areas. Unlike motor high-
ways, where changes in route are made slowly bymen and machines, the route changes in the rivers
are made by nature, sometimes, quickly and in
accordance with nature’s own rules. On the motor
highways, signs are placed by man to indicatedetours, curves, dips, bumps, obstructions, and
safety limits of speed. On the waterways, natureplaces her own signs to indicate the same thing,
but the signs are in nature’s language, and theboat operator, who can cruise successfully and
easily, must learn that language and how to read
The changes in current, channels, locations of
obstructions, and depth of the river may occur
annually, monthly, weekly, daily, and even in a
matter of hours. This is particularly true of the
northern glacial streams. For this reason the boatcommander and boat operator must always be onthe alert. They cannot depend upon their memoryof yesterday’s channels, for today’s channels maybe different. They must know and understand the
basic principles of river reading—of reading the
The waterways of the north are often fed byglacial tributaries which flow rapidly and carry
Clean the bottom regularly and flush the motor
with clean, freshwater.
(3) Include a set of spare spark plugs with
each motor. Operators remove, inspect, and clean
or replace them according to the TM for the par-
ticular motor.(4) If the boat strikes an object in the water,
the hull and motor lower unit require inspection,both for cracks and for damage, to the propeller,
propeller cap, cotter key, and shearpin.
(5) Handle the fuel line with care to prevent
damage where it joins the connectors.
c. Motor Modification.
Motors for use on thesilty shallow waters prevalent in northern areas
should be modified by the addition of a heavy-duty
water pump and the reinforcement of the skeg onthe motor lower unit.
with them a great amount of silt. Much of the
riverbank and much of the riverbed is made up of
deposited silt that is easily cut and reformed bythe current. In the forming process, sandbars are
formed. The fast current at certain periods moves
small stones to form gravel bars. Banks are un-
dercut causing trees to topple completely into the
river where they float until caught on sandbars,
starting log jams. Some topple only partially into
the water and are still held to the bank by the
roots. During high water, these trees, still con-
nected to the bank, may be just on or under the
surface (sleepers), or they may be hanging above
the water (sweepers). Such trees must be con-
Each of these obstacles–sandbars, gravel
bars, sleepers, sweepers–may be avoided because
they have a sign, made by nature, either on the
bank or in the water that points to their presence.
The boat commander and the operator must
watch the surface of the water ahead. Certain
general rules are as follows: A lightly rippled sur-
face usually indicates shallow water. If there is a
wind blowing, of course, the surface of even deep
water may be rippled, but lightly rippled water
where no wind is blowing indicates shallow water,
sandbars, or gravel bars. A long, undulating
wave, however, indicates deep water and fast cur-rent. The “deep water wave” is formed by a com-bination of deep water and fast current. A smooth
surface usually indicates deep water and slightly