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political law.pdf

political law.pdf

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Published by Mariel de la Rosa

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Published by: Mariel de la Rosa on Dec 31, 2012
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A
TENEO
C
ENTRAL
B
AR
O
PERATIONS
2007
Political Law
SUMMER REVIEWER
 
 —Advisers:
Atty. Sedfrey Candelaria
; Head:
Patricia Libo-on
; Understudy:
Grip Bueta
Members:
Felippe Closa, Juancho Hernandez, Immaculada Ylagan
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.............................................................................................................................2
 
A
I
...............................................................................................2  A
POLICIES...................................................2 
A
.................................................................................................................4 
..................................................................................................................23  ARTICLE
V
SUFFRAGE......................................................................................................................24 
...............................................................................25 
..................................................................................35 
......................................................................................43 
.....................................................................46 
.................................................................................................47 
 
THE COMMISSION ON ELECTIONS................................................................................................50 
 
.........................................................................................................53 
 
....................................................................................................54 
...................................................................57  ARTICLE
PATRIMONY...................................................................61  ARTICLE
RIGHTS.....................................................................65 
-
....67 
-
..............................................................................................68  ARTICLE
REVISIONS...................................................................................69 
-
......................................................................................71 
PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW...............................................................................................................72
 
............................................................................................72  SOURCES
LAW..................................................................................................72  TREATIES..............................................................................................................................................73  INTERNATIONAL
LAW.....................................................................................74  SUBJECTS
LAW.................................................................................................74  STATE
RESPONSIBILITY......................................................................................................................76  SETTLEMENT
DISPUTES...............................................................................................................77  SPECIAL
TOPICS..................................................................................................................................77  LAW ON HUMAN RIGHTS.....................................................................................................................81 
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW............................................................................................................................84
 
LAW ON PUBLIC CORPORATION...........................................................................................................89
 
LAW ON PUBLIC OFFICERS....................................................................................................................98
 
ELECTION LAW.......................................................................................................................................104
 
 
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Political Law Summer Reviewer
 
A
TENEO
C
ENTRAL
B
AR
O
PERATIONS
2007
 
Page 2 of 125
C
ONSTITUTIONAL
L
AW
 Article I – THE NATIONAL TERRITORY
The national territory of the Philippines comprises:1) the Philippine archipelago;2) all other territories over which the Philippines hassovereignty or jurisdiction
PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO
– that body of waterstudded with islands which is delineated in the Treatyof Paris (1898), as amended by the Treaty ofWashington (1900) and the Treaty with Great Britain(1930). – consists of itsa)
T
errestrialb)
F
luvialc)
A
erial domains – including itsa)
T
erritorial seab) The
s
eabedc) The
s
ubsoild) The
i
nsular shelves; ande) The
o
ther submarine areas
INTERNAL WATERS
– the waters Around, Betweenand Connecting the islands of the archipelago,regardless of their breadth and dimensions
ALL OTHER TERRITORIES OVER WHICH THEPHILIPPINES HAS SOVEREIGNTY ORJURISDICTION –
includes any territory that presentlybelongs or might in the future belong to thePhilippines through any of the accepted internationalmodes of acquiring territory.
ARCHIPELAGIC PRINCIPLE
Two elements:1. The definition of internal waters (supra);2. The
straight baseline method 
of delineating theterritorial sea – consists of drawing straight linesconnecting the outermost points on the coastwithout departing to any appreciable extent fromthe general direction of the coast.
 
Important distances with respect to the watersaround the Philippines
 Territorial Sea 12 nautical miles (n.m.)
 
Contiguous Zone
 
12 n.m. from the edge of theterritorial sea
 
ExclusiveEconomic Zone
 
200 n.m. from the baseline[includes T.S. and C.Z.]
 
NOTE:
There can be a Continental Shelf without anEEZ, but not an EEZ without a Continental Shelf.
TERRITORIAL SEA
The belt of the sea located between the coast andinternal waters of the coastal state on the one hand,and the high seas on the other, extending up to 12nautical miles from the
low water mark.
CONTIGUOUS ZONE
Extends up to 12 nautical miles from the
territorial sea.
Although not part of the territory, the coastalState may exercise jurisdiction to preventinfringement of customs, fiscal, immigration orsanitary laws.
EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE
Body of water extending up to 200 nautical miles,within which the state may exercise sovereign rightsto explore, exploit, conserve and manage the naturalresourcesThe state in the EEZ exercises jurisdiction withregard to:1. the establishment and use of artificial islands,installations, and structures;2. marine scientific research;3. the protection and preservation of marineenvironment;
Article II – DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES ANDSTATE POLICIES
Selected principles 
Sec. 1.
The Philippines is a democratic andrepublican state. Sovereignty resides in the peopleand all government authority emanates from them.
Elements of a State (for municipal law purposes)
1) People – A group of persons sufficientlynumerous held together by a common bond2) Territory – A definite area over which theState exercises sovereign jurisdiction3) Sovereignty – Power of the State to regulatematters within its own territory.4) Government Institution organized and runin order to manage the affairs of the State.
Classification of governments
1)
De jure 
– Government which is placed inpower following legal / constitutionalprocesses.2)
De facto 
– a government that actuallyexercises power or control but without legaltitle.
Classification of
de facto 
governments
 
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Political Law Summer Reviewer
 
A
TENEO
C
ENTRAL
B
AR
O
PERATIONS
2007
 
Page 3 of 125
1)
De facto 
propera. That government that gets possession andcontrol ofb. or usurps by force or by the voice of majorityc. the rightful legal governmentd. and maintains itself against the will of thelatter.2) Government of
paramount force 
a. That which is established and maintained bymilitary forcesb. who invade and occupy a territory of the enemyc. in the course of war.d. That established as an independent government
 
by the inhabitants of a country who rise in
insurrection 
against the parent state.
“REPUBLICAN STATE”
It is one wherein all government authority emanatesfrom the people and is exercised by representativeschosen by the people.
“DEMOCRATIC STATE”
This merely emphasizes that the Philippines hassome aspects of direct democracy such as initiativeand referendum.
Sec. 2.
The Philippines renounces war as aninstrument of national policy, adopts the generallyaccepted principles of international law as part of thelaw of the land and adheres to the policy of peace,equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amitywith all nations.
The Philippines renounces
AGGRESSIVE war 
as an instrument of national policy, butallows for a defensive war.
Examples of Generally Accepted Principles ofInternational Law" cited in PhilippineJurisprudence:
1) The right of an alien to be released on bail whileawaiting deportation when his failure to leave thecountry is due to the fact that no country willaccept him (
Mejoff v. Director of Prisons 
, 90 Phil.70)2) The right of a country to establish militarycommissions to try war criminals (
Kuroda v.Jalondoni,
83 Phil. 171)3) The Vienna Convention on Road Signs andSignals and Pacta Sunt Servanda (
Agustin v.Edu,
88 SCRA 195)4) Duty to protect the premises of embassies andlegations (
Reyes v. Bagatsing,
G.R. 65366)
Pimentel, Jr. v Office of the Executive Secretary 
(462 SCRA 622) (July 6, 2005)Ratio: 
1)
Signing of the Treaty shows the assent of the State to the treaty which it seeks to enter and has the corresponding duty on the State to refrain from actions which may defeat the purpose of the treaty.
2)
A State party is not bound to ratify a treaty which it signs, however it goes without saying that the refusal must be based on substantial grounds and not on superficial or whimsical reasons.
3)
The President has the discretion even after the signing of the treaty by the Philippine representative whether or not to ratify the same.
4)
It is within the authority of the President to refuse to submit a treaty to the Senate or, having secured its consent for its ratification, refuse to ratify it.
 
Southern Cross Cement Corporation v. Cement Manufacturers Association of the Philippines 
(465 SCRA 532) (August 3, 2005)Ratio: Our treaty obligations dissuade the State for now from implementing default protectionist trade measures such as tariffs, and allow the same only under specified conditions. To insulate factual determination from political pressure, and to assure that it be conducted by an entity especially qualified by reasons of its general functions to undertake such investigation, Congress deemed it necessary to delegate to the Tariff Commission the function of ascertaining whether or not those factual conditions exist to warrant the atypical imposition of safeguard measures 
Sec. 3
. Civilian authority is, at all times, supremeover the military. The Armed Forces of thePhilippines is the protector of the people and theState. Its goal is to secure the sovereignty of theState and the integrity of the national territory.
Civilian authority/Supremacy clause (1
st
 sentence)
The Constitution provides that the head of the armedforces is a civilian president and the primary purposeof AFP is to serve and protect the people.

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