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calcululunorsumeingimnaziu

# calcululunorsumeingimnaziu

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04/08/2014

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Calculul unor sume in gimnaziuExercitii in care se cere calcularea unei sume de mai multi termeni sunt intalnitechiar in manualele de clasa a-IV-a sau a-V-a.Am considerat necesara demonstrareaunor formule de calcul pentru acestea ,altele decat cele ce folosesc inductiamatematica sau o pseudo-inductie matematica,in ideea de a le folosi in rezolvareaunor probleme propuse pentru diferite concursuri.Calculul unor sume de numere1. S= 1 +2 +3 + …+(n-2) +(n-1) +nS=n +(n-1)+(n-2)+… + 3 + 2 + 12S=n+1+n+1+n+1+…+n+1+n+1+n+12S=n(n+1)S=
2)1(
+
nn
2. S=1 + 3 + 5 +…..+(2n-5)+(2n-3)+(2n-1)S=(2n-1)+(2n-3)+(2n-5)+…+ 5 + 3 + 12S=2n + 2n +2n +…+ 2n + 2n + 2n2S=2n.nS=
n
2
3. S=1 +
x
+
x
2
+…+
x
xn
2
+
x
n
1
+
x
n
Sx=
x x x x x
nn
++++
+
13
....2
Sx-S =
1
1
+
x
n
S(x-1) =
1
1
+
x
n
S=(
x
n
1
+
-1)/(
x
-1)4. S=
1
2
+
2
2
+
3
2
+…+
n
2
Folosind suma primelor n numere naturale impare putem scrie:
1
2
=1
1

2
2
=1+3
3
2
=1+3+5…………………………….
2
=1+3+5+…+(2k-1)…………;…………………..
n
2
=1+3+5+…+(2k-1)+…+(2n-1)Adunand membru cu membru obtinem:S=n.1+(n-1).3+(n-2).5+…+(n-k+1).(2k-1)+…+2.(2n-3)+(2n-1)Termenul general are forma:(2k-1).(n-k+1) si poate fi scris:(2k-1).(n-k+1)=(n+1).(2k-1)-2
2
+k,atunci:S=(n+1).(1+3+5+…+2n-1)-2(
1
2
+
2
2
+
3
2
+…+
n
2
)+(1+2+3+…+n)3S=(n+1).
n
2
+n(n+1)/26S=2.(n+1).
n
2
+n.(n+1)6S=n(n+1)(2n+1)S=
6)12)(1(
++
nnn
5. S=
2.11
+
3.21
+
4.31
+…+
)1(1
+
nn
Se demonstreaza usor ca:
)1(1
+
nn
=
n
1
-
11
+
n
S=
11
-
21
+
21
-
31
+…+
n
1
-
11
+
n
=
11
-
11
+
n
=
1
+
nn
Generalizare:
)(
nn
+
=
n
1
-
n
+
1
Aplicatii:a)Calculati suma cifrelor numarului:x=9+99+999+…+99..99,unde ultimul termen are 2008 cifre.Numarul x se mai poate scrie:x=10-1+
10
2
-1+
10
3
-1+…+
10
2008
-1=(10+
10
2
+
10
3
+…+
10
2008
-1==(10+
10
2
+
10
3
+…+
10
2008
)-2008=10(1+10+
10
2
+…+
10
2007
)-2008==10.
1101
10
2008
-2008=10.
999..999
-2008=10.111…11-2008=111…1109102.In rezultatapare de 2004 ori,deci suma cifrelor va fi :2016.Generalizare:Pentru a calcula: S=a+
aa
+
aaa
+…+
aaaa
...
se calculeaza:
9
a
(9+99+999+…+99…9)
2

b)Calculati: S=
4.13
+
9.45
+
16.97
+…+
1849.176485
Se foloseste relatia:
)(
nn
+
=
n
1
-
n
+
1
si avem:S=
11
-
41
+
41
-
91
+
91
-
161
+…+
17641
-
18491
=
18491848
c)Sa secalculeze:S=
)1.(1 1
+
+
)12)(1( 1
++
+
)13)(12( 1
++
+…+
)1](1)[( 1
++
nk n
Se observa ca diferenta dintre factorii de la numitor este k,deci vom inmulti cu k siobtinem:Sk=
)1.(1
+
+
)12)(1(
++
+
)13)(12(
++
+…+
)1](1)1[(
++
nk n
==
11
-
11
+
+
11
+
-
121
+
+
121
+
-
131
+
+…+
1)1( 1
+
n
-
11
+
nk
==
11
-
11
+
nk
=
111
++
nk nk
=
1
+
nk nk
,de unde:S=
1
+
nk n
.d)Aratati ca numarul :N=1+2+
2
2
+
2
3
+…+
2
2006
nu este patrat perfect.Calculand N obtinem: N=
2
2007
-1U(
2
2007
-1)=U(U(
2
2007
)-1)=7.Cum nici un patrat perfect nu se termina in 2,3,7,8rezulta N nu este patrat perfect.e)Sa se calculeze suma:S=
1
2
+
3
2
+
5
2
+…+
)12(
2
n
Se porneste de la
)12(
2
n
=4.
n
2
-4.n+1 avem:
1
2
=4.
1
2
-4.1+1
3
2
=4.
2
2
-4.2+1
5
2
=4.
3
2
-4.3+1…………………….
)12(
2
n
=4.
n
2
1
2
+
2
2
+
3
2
+…+
n
2
)-4(1+2+3+…+n)+n== 4.
6)12)(1(
++
nnn
-4.
2)1(
+
nn
+n=
3)12)(1(2
++
nnn
-2n(n+1)+n==
33)1(6)12)(1(2
nnnnnn
++++
=
3