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Culture and Education

Culture and Education

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Published by MClarissaE
Education
Education

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Published by: MClarissaE on Jan 02, 2013
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American Academy of Political and Social Science
Culture and EducationAuthor(s): Mitchell L. StevensReviewed work(s):Source:
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
Vol. 619, CulturalSociology and Its Diversity (Sep., 2008), pp. 97-113Published by:
in association with the
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Accessed: 09/10/2012 02:16
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CulturendEducation
ByMITCHELLL.STEVENS
The author eviewsheprimaryrameworkshroughwhichNorthAmericanociologistsave conceived ftherelation etween ormal ducationnd culture ndexplainsowsociologists' reponderantonceptionfformalchoolings an individual-levelhenomenonanda metricaluantityas cometo constrainntellec-tualprogressn much f he ubfield. heauthor fferstwoanalytic trategieshatmighthelploosen thisconstraint.Keywords:education;culture;socialstratification;networks;lass;theory
forthe word"culture"n a com-monlyseddictionaryakeeducationdefinitiveomponentf heoncept.he thirdlistedefinitions,"Developmentfthe ntel-lectthroughtrainingor education.. .Enlightenmentesultingrom uchrainingreducation"{AmericanHeritageCollegeDictionary997,337).Sociologistsaveongappreciatedhedeepimplicationfformallyorganizedchoolingn culturalformation,transmission,ndsocialtratification,lthoughthenatureofthisappreciationas variedwidelyver imendacrossisciplinarypace.Theprimaryoalofthis rticles toprovideschematicapof hiserrain.
Mitchell. Stevenss an associateprofessorfeduca-tionandsociologyt NewYorkUniversity.e istheauthorfCreatingClass:CollegeAdmissionsnd theEducationofElitesHarvardUniversityress2007)andKingdomfChildren: ulturendControversyntheHomeschoolingMovementPrincetonUniversityPress001).NOTE:Anearlierersionfthisrticlewaspresentedat theSecondAnnualCultureConference,niversityofCalifornia,anDiego,May5,2006.Thanks toElizabethArmstrong,ichardArum,AmyBinder,MaryBlair-Loy,MariaCharles,TimHallett,ArikLifschitz,ohnMeyer,lorenciaorche,ndmembersof heNYU EducationWorkshoporelpfulommentsonanearlierraft.
DOI:10.1177/0002716208320043
ANNALS,AAPSS,619,September00897
 
98THE ANNALS F THEAMERICAN CADEMY
Thethreemost nfluential odes f culturalxplanationnthesociologyfeducation racedirectlyotheworkf KarlMarx,MaxWeber,nd EmileDurkheim. hile tmayeemxcessivelyidactic obeginwithhelassics,t smyontentionhatnalyses erivingrom heseheoreticalraditionsffer un-damentallyifferentonceptionsfherelationshipetweenulture,ducation,and social tructurend that lision f hesedifferencesasbroughtheoreticalconfusionotheociologyf ducation.oingotheblunteginningsf ulturalexplanationsntheubfieldnablesme to morelearly ortrayhemplications,limitations,nd occasionalontradictionsfrecentcholarshipndto better eehowociologistsightnvigorateheir tudies feducationithnsightsloserto culturalheory'suttingdge.The coreofociologicalesearch n education tpresents definedy par-ticularheoreticalndmethodologicalomminglingfMarx'sndWeber'sdeas.Isketch his oren therticle'sirstection,rguinghatociologists'nduringpenchantoruantificationas tended oobscure heessentiallyulturalhar-acterf ducationalrocesses.flesh uthisrgumentntheecondectionydescribinghetroubleorth mericanociologistsavehadwithnnexingheinsightsfPierre ourdieundhisolleaguesnFrenchociology.he thirdec-tion akespthe womostmportanttrandsfEmileDurkheimlegacyn thesociologyfeducationntheUnited tates.One was mostlearly xplicatednthe workf Talcottarsons t Harvardn the1950s;theother ameout ofStanfordhroughheworkfJohnMeyernd hiscolleaguesrom he 1970sonward. sexplainnthefourthection,his arsonsiantrandasargelyvac-uatedwith herightsmovementsnd ntellectualragmentationf thecultureconceptnthe atter ecades f he wentiethentury,hile heMeyeriantrandhasbecomeomethingf nexplanatoryrchipelago,ftenitedyhose t theMarxo-Weberianorebutonly enuouslyonnectedo them.concludeydis-cussingowhree therodiesfcholarshiphat tpresentre removed romtheore thetudyfpeerculture,focialnetworks,ndof chools s formalorganizationsholdpromiseormovingulturalxplanationntheociologyfeducationutof ts toried utonstrainingast.
HowMarx,Weber,nd StatisticsFormed nIntellectual ore
Ever inceMarxennedisfamousictumhat the deasf heulinglassreinevery pochherulingdeas"Tucker 978, 72),nheritorsfhisnsightsavedevelopedvermoreophisticatednalysesfhow heroductionndransmissionofknowledgeervehenterestsfpower.hestark,arliestormulationsfthisidea eemlmostuaintocontemporaryeaders,consequencef heir oweepembeddednessndie stratafsociologicalhinking:The lasswhichas hemeansofmaterialroductiont tsdisposal,ascontrolt the ame ime ver hemeans ofmentalroduction.. .Therulingdeas renothingorehan hedealxpres-sionf hedominantaterialelationships"ibid.);ndTourerydeas rebut heoutgrowthf heonditionsfyourourgeoisroductionndbourgeoisroperty,

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