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Rock History

Rock History



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Published by itumelengjacobs

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: itumelengjacobs on Feb 08, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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AFDA: School of MUSIC. © 200744 Frost Avenue, Auckland Park, Johannesburg, South Africa
Rock music is a form of popular music with a prominent vocal melodyaccompanied by guitar, drums, and bass. Many styles of rock music also usekeyboard instruments such as organ, piano, or synthesizers. Rock music usuallyhas a strong back beat, and often revolves around guitar, either electric or acoustic.Rock music has its roots in 1950s-era rock and roll and rockabilly. In the late1960s, rock music was blended with folk music to create folk rock, blues tocreate blues rock and with jazz, to create jazz-rock fusion, and without a timesignature to create psychedelic rock. In the 1970s, rock incorporated influencesfrom soul, funk, and latin music. Also in the 1970s, rock developed a number of subgenres, such as soft rock, hard rock, progressive rock, heavy metal and punkrock. Rock subgenres from the 1980s included glam metal, synth-rock, thrashmetal, hardcore punk and alternative rock. In the 1990s, rock subgenres includedgrunge-style rock, britpop, indie rock, piano rock, and nu metal.
Origins: Rock and roll
Rock 'n' roll came from rhythm and blues (R'n'B), country, and in turn itsinfluence fed back to these cultures, a process of borrowings, influences thatcontinue to develop rock music. Rock 'n' roll had runaway success in the U.S.and brought R'n'B-influenced music to an international audience. Its success ledto a dilution of the meaning of the term "rock and roll", as promoters were quickto attach the label to other commercial pop.Rock 'n' roll started off in the early-to-mid 1950s in the United States. African-American artists such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, and FatsDomino played predominantly to African American crowds. While these key earlyrockers were indisposed to racism, local authorities and dance halls were verymuch divided upon racial lines.Mainstream acceptance of rock and roll came in the mid-1950s when what BoDiddley describes as 'ofay dudes' (or whites) signed to major labels and startedcovering their material. Elvis Presley and Bill Haley and the Comets, Buddy
AFDA: School of MUSIC. © 200744 Frost Avenue, Auckland Park, Johannesburg, South Africa
Holly, The Big Bopper, Jerry Lee Lewis and Johnny Cash often toured andplayed together in dance halls and clubs across the US and Britain.Towards the end of the 1950s "chessboard" crowds (both black and whitepatrons) would emerge at rock and roll concerts, as fans discovered the originalartists of the songs they knew from television and the radio, such as LittleRichard's "Tutti Frutti". The genre ignited British enthusiasm for rhythm and bluesand the development of British rock.
The mid-1950s-early 1960s
Early British rock
In the United Kingdom the trad jazz movement brought visiting blues musicartists to Britain. Lonnie Donegan's 1955 hit "Rock Island Line" was a major influence, and helped to develop the trend of skiffle music groups throughout thecountry, including John Lennon's the Quarry Men, the 1957 precursor to TheBeatles. Britain developed a major rock and roll scene, without the race barrierswhich kept "race records" or rhythm and blues separate in the U.S.
The Who released "My Generation" - 13th Mar 1967
Townshend's instrument-smashing became integral to their live performances.
Cliff Richard had the first British rock 'n' roll hit with "Move It", effectively usheringin the sound of British rock. At the start of the 1960s, his backing group TheShadows was one of a number of groups having success with surf musicinstrumentals. And while rock 'n' roll was fading into lightweight pop andschmaltzy ballads, at clubs and local dances British rock groups, heavilyinfluenced by blues-rock pioneers like Alexis Korner, were starting to play with anintensity and drive seldom found in white American acts.By the end of 1962, the British rock scene had started, with groups drawing on awide range of American influences including soul music, rhythm and blues and
AFDA: School of MUSIC. © 200744 Frost Avenue, Auckland Park, Johannesburg, South Africa
surf music. Initially, they reinterpreted standard American tunes, playing for dancers doing the twist, for example. These groups eventually infused their original rock compositions with increasingly complex musical ideas.
Cream live - 1967
Cream in Copenhagen performing a TV Special.
The Beatles brought together an appealing mix of image, songwriting andpersonality, and achieved an unprecedented level of worldwide popularity. Inmid-1962 The Rolling Stones started as one of a number of groups increasinglyshowing blues influence, along with The Animals and The Yardbirds. In late1964, The Kinks, The Who and The Pretty Things represented the new Modstyle. Towards the end of the decade, British rock groups began to explorepsychedelic musical styles that made reference to the drug subculture andhallucinogenic experiences.
Jimi Hendrix - 1960s
Hendrix played a Fender Stratocaster guitar turned upside down.

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