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American Social Spending in Perspective

American Social Spending in Perspective

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Published by: Roosevelt Campus Network on Jan 02, 2013
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 American Social Spending in Perspective
Historical Trends and International Comparisons 
 A Policy Brief by the Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and Human Capability Washingtonand Lee University, Lexington, Virginia Written by Joseph Landry, Washington and Lee University, 2013 Advisor: Dr. Harlan Beckley, Shepherd Program Director and Fletcher Otey Thomas Professor of Religion at Washington and Lee
 
 
1
 Table of Contents
 T
 ABLE OF
F
IGURES
...................................................................................................................... 2
 
I
NTRODUCTION
........................................................................................................................... 3
 
G
ENERAL
G
OVERNMENT
F
INANCIAL
B
 ALANCES
........................................................................ 4
 
S
OCIAL
S
PENDING
........................................................................................................................ 6
 
Introduction 
............................................................................................................................ 6
 
International Social Spending Comparisons 
.......................................................................... 6
 
Social Spending by Category 
.................................................................................................. 8
 
S
OCIAL
S
PENDING IN THE
F
EDERAL
B
UDGET
........................................................................... 11
 
Introduction 
.......................................................................................................................... 11
 
Comparing Social Insurance and Means-Tested Federal Spending 
.................................... 12
 
How Health Care Costs are Driving Social Spending Expansions 
...................................... 15
 
Transfers By Income Group 
................................................................................................. 21
 
Conclusion 
............................................................................................................................. 23
 
 T
RENDS IN
F
EDERAL
 T
 AXATION
............................................................................................... 24
 
Introduction 
.......................................................................................................................... 24
 
Trends in Federal Taxation Across Income Groups 
............................................................ 25
 
 T
 AX
E
XPENDITURES
.................................................................................................................. 29
 
Introduction 
.......................................................................................................................... 29
 
Budgetary Effects 
.................................................................................................................. 29
 
Beneficiaries by Income Group 
............................................................................................ 29
 
C
ONCLUSION
............................................................................................................................. 32
 
M
 AJOR 
S
OURCES
........................................................................................................................ 34
 
 
 
2
 Table of Figures
Figure 1: General Government Spending and Receipts as a % of GDP, 2012 (Projections) .................. 4Figure 2: General Government Spending and Receipts as a % of GDP, 2007 ......................................... 4Figure 3: U.S. General Government Financial Balances Since 1994 (as a % of Nominal GDP) ............ 5Figure 4: Public Social Spending in OECD Nations in 2007 (% of GDP) ................................................ 6Figure 5: Total Social Spending as a Percentage of GDP (1980-2005) ....................................................... 7Figure 6: US Social Spending as a % of GDP (Pie Chart) ............................................................................ 9Figure 8: Federal Social Spending by Major Category, 1965-2011 (Unstacked) ...................................... 12Figure 9: Federal Social Spending as a Percentage of GDP (Unstacked) ................................................. 13Figure 10: Federal Social Spending as a Percent of Overall Outlays (Unstacked) ................................... 14Figure 11: Federal Social Insurance Spending (Stacked), 1965-2011 ......................................................... 15Figure 12: Federal Means-Tested Transfer Spending by Major Program, 1965-2011 ............................ 16Figure 13: Federal Means-Tested Transfer Spending by Major Program ................................................. 16Figure 14: US Health Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP (1960-2010) .............................................. 18Figure 15: US Health Expenditures Since 1960: Source of Funding ......................................................... 19Figure 16: Source of Health Expenditure Funding since 1965 ................................................................... 19Figure 17: Medicaid Enrollment versus Medicaid Expenditures ................................................................ 20Figure 18: Share of Total Transfers by Market Income Group ................................................................. 21Figure 19: Transfers as Percentage of Average Household Income, 1979-2007 ..................................... 22Figure 20: Reduction in Inequality Resulting From Federal Transfers ..................................................... 23Figure 21: Federal Revenues as a Percentage of GDP, 1979-2009 ............................................................ 24Figure 22: Federal Taxes as a Percentage of Household Income Since 1979 .......................................... 25Figure 23: Pre-Tax and Post-Tax Income Shares ......................................................................................... 26Figure 24: Share of Total After-Tax Income by Income Group, 1979-2007 ........................................... 27Figure 25: Reduction in Inequality Resulting from Federal Taxes ............................................................. 28Figure 26: Reduction in Inequality Resulting From Transfers and Taxes Combined ............................. 28Figure 27: Percent Change in After-Tax Income From Tax Expenditures .............................................. 30Figures 28-37: Average Household Benefit From Tax Expenditures (2007) ........................................... 31

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