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Rapid Pro to Typing

Rapid Pro to Typing

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Published by Ritesh
This will assist students for Engineering Paper presentation at national Level Paper presentation Competition on various topics. This topics have already presented
This will assist students for Engineering Paper presentation at national Level Paper presentation Competition on various topics. This topics have already presented

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Ritesh on Feb 08, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/07/2013

 
2006
BNCE Pusad
Ritesh Bhusari
[
RAPID PROTOTYPING
]
 
RAPID PROTOTYPING
INTRODUCTIONPrototype manufacture is a very time consuming process involving all stagesof manufacture such as process planning, machining, assembly etc in addition to the functionsof PPC. The long cycle time and the high cost of this process limits the number of designalternatives that could be evaluated. Therefore people thought of developing processes thatwould directly give the physical prototype from the CAD model without going through thevarious manufacturing steps. This led to the development of a class of processes that are todayknown as Rapid Prototyping.The term
rapid prototyping 
(RP) refers to a class of technologies that canautomatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data. These"three dimensional printers" allow designers to quickly create tangible prototypes of their designs, rather than just two-dimensional pictures. Such models have numerous uses. Theymake excellent visual aids for communicating ideas with co-workers or customers. Inaddition, prototypes can be used for design testing. For example, an aerospace engineer mightmount a model airfoil in a wind tunnel to measure lift and drag forces. Designers have alwaysutilized prototypes; RP allows them to be made faster and less expensively.Rapid prototyping is an "additive" process, combining layers of paper, wax,or plastic to create a solid object. In contrast, most machining processes (milling, drilling,grinding, etc.) are "subtractive" processes that remove material from a solid block. RP’sadditive nature allows it to create objects with complicated internal features that cannot bemanufactured by other means.Rapid Prototyping is an emerging and fast maturing technology which can produce a3D model directly form a numerical description more quickly and that too with out use of anytools or fixtures.The basic processAll the rapid prototyping techniques employ the same basic five-step process.The steps are:1.Create a CAD model of the design2.Convert the CAD model to STL format3.Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers4.Construct the model one layer atop another 5.Clean and finish the modelFirst, the object to be built is modeled using a Computer-Aided Design (CAD)software package. Solid modelers, such as Pro/ENGINEER, tend to represent 3-D objects
 
more accurately than wire-frame modelers such as AutoCAD, and will therefore yield better results.The second step, therefore, is to convert the CAD file into STL(stereolithography, the first RP technique) format. This format represents a three-dimensionalsurface as an assembly of planar triangles, "like the faces of a cut jewel." The file contains thecoordinates of the vertices and the direction of the outward normal of each triangle. BecauseSTL files use planar elements, they cannot represent curved surfaces exactly. Increasing thenumber of triangles improves the approximation, but at the cost of bigger file size. Large,complicated files require more time to pre-process and build, so the designer must balanceaccuracy with manageability to produce a useful STL file.In the third step, a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be built.Several programs are available, and most allow the user to adjust the size, location andorientation of the model. The preprocessing software slices the STL model into a number of layers from 0.01 mm to 0.7 mm thick, depending on the build technique. The program mayalso generate an auxiliary structure to support the model during the build.The fourth step is the actual construction of the part. Using one of severaltechniques (described in the next section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers, paper, or powdered metal. Most machines are fairly autonomous, needing littlehuman intervention.The final step is post-processing. This involves removing the prototype fromthe machine and detaching any supports. Some photosensitive materials need to be fully cured before use. Prototypes may also require minor cleaning and surface treatment. Sanding,sealing, and/or painting the model will improve its appearance and durability.RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNIQUESThe technologies currently available for physically producing the rapid prototype model are.StereolithographyPatented in 1986, stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution.The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers thatsolidify when exposed to ultraviolet light. As shown in the figure below, the model is builtupon a platform situated just below the surface in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. Alow-power highly focused UV laser traces out the first layer, solidifying the model’s crosssection while leaving excess areas liquid.

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