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Nano tech

Nano tech

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Published by Ritesh
This will assist students for Engineering Paper presentation at national Level Paper presentation Competition on various topics. This topics have already presented
This will assist students for Engineering Paper presentation at national Level Paper presentation Competition on various topics. This topics have already presented

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Published by: Ritesh on Feb 08, 2009
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07/09/2009

 
Threshold ‘05
NANOTECHNOLOGY: A BRIEFOVERVIEW WITH ANEMPHASIS ONAPPLICATIONS
4/12/2005
BNCE Pusad
Brought to you by-Ritesh Bhusari
 
Threshold ’05 Page
2
NANOTECHNOLOGY: A BRIEF OVERVIEW WITH AN EMPHASIS ONAPPLICATIONSABSTRACT:
Nanotechnology is actually a multitude of rapidly emerging technologies, basedupon the scaling down of existing technologies to the next level of precision andminiaturization. It is building atom-by-atom, or molecule-by-molecule. The underlyingprinciple is that by rearranging the atoms, it is possible to alter properties of materials.Quantum physics laws take over at this scale, enabling novel applications in optics,electronics, magnetic storage, computing, catalysts, biotechnology, genetics, medicine etc.Nanotechnology will touch almost every aspect of our lives, making space travel aneveryday reality, having nanorobots travelling through the circulatory system trackingdown and destroying cancer cells and tumors along with cleaning of clogged arteries,smart, power producing paint and mapping of cells and genes! Tiny nanocomputerCPU’s, computing at the rate of 10 teraflops per second and airborne nanorobotsprogrammed to rebuild the thinning ozone layer will all be possible!Research and experimental work has already resulted in tools of MolecularNanotechnology (MNT) like molecular tweezers , molecular manipulators and replicatorsthat will allow us to create these magical products.In this paper, I present an effort to give a brief overview of nanotechnology andhighlight it’s enormous potential in building applications that will revolutionize ouruniverse .What lies beneath and beyond makes the odyssey exciting and the incrediblepower it’ll bestow man with will make all the challenges worth overcoming.
NANOTECHNOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION
 Nanotechnology, often referred to as ‘God of Small World’, involves the manipulation of materials at atomic and molecular levels to reduce the size while at the same time packing themwith tremendous power.
 A FEW EXAMPLES OF NANOSTRUCTURES:
DNA moleculeDUV Photoresist Patterns Generated byInterferometric Lithography
 
Threshold ’05 Page
3 Nanotechnology is an umbrella term that covers many areas of research dealing with objectsthat are measured in nanometers. It’s a term coined in 1974 by Norio Taniguchi at theUniversity of Tokyo.
A nanometer (nm) is a billionth of a meter, or a millionth of a millimeter.
To put thatscale of measurement into perspective, a human red blood cell is about 7,500 nanometersacross, and one nanometer is roughly 10 atoms wide. The letter "I" printed here is about onemillion nanometers wide.
NANOTECHNOLOGY: HOW IT WORKS
Manufactured products are made from atoms. The properties of those products depend onhow those atoms are arranged. If we rearrange the atoms in coal, we get diamonds. Rearrangingthe atoms in sand (and adding a pinch of impurities) we get computer chips. Rearranging atomsin dirt, water and air we get grass. In special cases we can already arrange atoms and moleculesexactly as we want.Nanotechnology is a hybrid science combining engineering and chemistry. Atoms andmolecules stick together because they have complementary shapes that lock together, or charges that attract. As unlike magnetic poles attract, a positively charged atom sticks to anegatively charged atom. As millions of these atoms are pieced together by nanomachines, aspecific product begins to take shape. The goal of nanotechnology is to manipulate atomsindividually and place them in a pattern to produce a desired structure. There are three steps toachieving nanotechnology-produced goods:
·
Manipulation of individual atoms. IBM researchers positioned 35 xenon atoms on thesurface of a nickel crystal, using an atomic force microscopy instrument.
·
Trillions of Assemblers which are nanoscopic machines, that can be programmed tomanipulate atoms and molecules at will need to be developed.
·
Replicators,used to build more assemblers for consumer manufacturing will be required.Trillions of assemblers and replicators will fill an area smaller than a cubic millimeter,and they’ll be invisible to the naked eye. Assemblers and replicators will work together likehands to automatically construct products, and will eventually replace all traditional labour methods. This will vastly decrease manufacturing costs, thereby making consumer goodsabundant, cheaper and stronger.
THE CURRENT SCENARIO:
The methods and equipment of nanoanalysis are major contributors to the advances beingmade in nanotechnology.Scientists are working not just on the materials of the future, but alsothe tools that will allow us to use these ingredients to create products. Experimental work hasalready resulted in the production of molecular tweezers, a carbon nanotube transistor, andlogic gates.Theoretical work is progressing as well. Molecular computers,Exponential AssemblyProcess ,Building of artificial muscles using nanotubes are all results of cutting edge researchthat’ll take us forward.Let’s have a look at a few of these tools:

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