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STATISTICS IN RESEARCH

# STATISTICS IN RESEARCH

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05/28/2013

STATISTICS IN RESEARCHElena M. ManaigApproaches to ResearchMany of the researches are done in one of two ways:1.Two or more groups are compared such as in varietal tests where thecharacteristics of twoor more varieties are compared and fertilizer experiments using different forms ortypes of fertilizer, different levels, etc.2. Variables within one group are related.Examples: Relating length of panicles and weight of individual grainsDetermining relationship between feed consumption and gain inweightComparing Groups: Quantitative DataWhen two or more groups are compared, the comparison can be made in avariety of ways: through frequency polygons, calculation of one or more measuresof central tendency (averages) and calculation of one or more measures ofvariability (spreads).Once descriptive statistics have been calculated, they must be interpreted.At this point, the task is to describe in words what the polygons, averages andspreads tell about the question/problem or hypothesis being investigated. Keyquestions arise: How large does a difference in means between two groups have tobe in order to be important? When will this difference make a difference? Howdoes one decide?a.Use information about known groupsb.Calculate the effect sizemean of experimental group – mean of comparison groupEffect size = ————————————————————————standard deviation of comparison groupc.Use inferential statistics. Use tests of significance only to judge thegeneralizability of results and not to evaluate the magnitude of differencebetween sample means.d.In making conclusions, sometimes there is a need to reiterate the conditionunder which the characteristics being compared were tested.Relating Variables within a Group: Quantitative DataWhenever quantitative variables within a single group are examined, theappropriate techniques are scatterplot and correlation coefficient. Ininterpreting scatterplots and correlation coefficients the question is similar tointerpreting differences between means: How large must a coefficient ofcorrelation be to suggest important or significant relationship? What does animportant relationship look like in a scatterplot?Inferential statistics must be calculated only if the researcher can give aconvincing argument that the relationship found in the sample is important. Thetest of significance must be used to judge generalizablity and not to evaluate themagnitude of relationship.

Interpretation of Correlation Coefficients When Testing Research HypothesisMagnitude of rInterpretation.00 to .40Of little practical importance except in unusual circumstances; perhapsof theoretical value.41 to .60Large enough to be of practical as well as theoretical use.61 to .80Very important.81 to 1.00If not an error in calculation, a very sizable relationshipComparing Groups: Categorical DataGroups may be compared when the data involved are categorical or qualitative byreporting either percentages or proportions and frequencies in crossbreak orcontingency tables. The summary statistics must be interpreted carefully- evenpercentages. Percentages may be misleading unless the number of cases is alsogiven.Relating Variables within a Group: Categorical DataThe procedures available are the same as those for comparing groups- percentagesor proportions and frequencies in crossbreak tables. Example is determiningwhether the gender of farmers is related to their extension exposure.Table 1. Distribution of plants by fertilizer Table 2. Distribution offarmers by educationalapplication and degree of damage by pest attainment and adoption oftechnologyDamage AdopterNon-adopterSevere MildElementaryWithout fertilizer 12 20High SchoolWith fertilizer 18 14CollegeSummary of commonly used statistical techniques: Quantitative DataCategorical DataTwo or more groups are comparedDescriptive statisticsFrequency polygonsPercentagesAveragesBar graphsSpreadsPie chartsEffect sizeCrossbreak (contingency tablesInferential Statisticst-test for meansChi squareANOVAANACOVAConfidence intervalMann-Whitney U testKruskal-Wallis ANOVASign testFriedman ANOVARelationships among variables areStudied within one groupDescriptive statisticsScatterplotCrossbreak (contingency) tables

CorrelationContingency coefficientInferential Statisticst-test for rChi squareConfidence intervalREVIEW OF BASIC STATISTICSTypes of Data:1.Qualitative or Categorical data differ in kind but not in degree or amount.They are collected on qualitative variables.2.Quantitative data vary in degree, amount or magnitude. These are furtherclassified into discrete and continuous. They are collected on quantitativevariables.Classification of variables on which data can be collected:Qualitative/CategoricalQuantitativeDiscreteContinuousPeopleSex, civil status, ethnicity,organizational affiliation,occupation, attitudeHousehold size, no. of dependents, frequency of farm visitAge, height, income, expenses on food, amount of time spent on the farmPlants Species, variety, color offlowers, shape of fruits,growth habitPopulation, no. of fruits, no. of tillers, no. of cavans, no. ofcroppingsHeight, weight of fruits, biomass, length of paniclesarea occupied per plantAnimalsBreed, type (meat or dairy) color of hair, body conditionfeeding habitPopulation, no. of eggs,litter size, no. of parasitesfrequency of feeding,Body weight, body lengthfeed consumption,feed efficiencyBarangaysources of income, types of existing organizations, resources, dominantreligionPopulation, no. of voters,no. of project beneficiaries,crime incidenceIncome, land area, amount of taxes collected, population densityLevels of Data MeasurementTYPENATUREEXAMPLESKIND OF ANALYSISNominalUses categories or classifications; no measure; order is meaningless;lowest level of data measurement since data cannot be transformed.1. Types oforganization-Professional-Scientific-Honor Societies2. Animals raised-Chicken -Cattle-Swine -GoatNon-parametric:-Chi square (2)-Percentages- etc OrdinalNo measure; data are arranged in meaningful order, rank or classes, butthe distances between each order or class are not equalScales are mutually exclusiveExamples:1. size expressed as small, medium and large

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