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Microbiology revision

Microbiology revision

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Published by Shevani Kumar
Revision on chemical processes in the microbe, different ways chemicals are utilized and the evolutionary theory of bacteria.
Revision on chemical processes in the microbe, different ways chemicals are utilized and the evolutionary theory of bacteria.

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Published by: Shevani Kumar on Jan 05, 2013
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11/05/2014

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1. a. Fill in the following table with the carbon and energy source and an example (the correctscientific name) of each type of organism.
 –
Autotrophs fix CO2 and assemble into organic molecules (mainly sugars).
 –
Heterotrophs use preformed organic molecules.
 –
Phototrophs obtain energy from chemical reactions triggered by light.
 –
Chemotrophs obtain energy from oxidation-reduction reactions.
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Lithotrophs use inorganic molecules as a source of electrons.
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Organotrophs use organic molecules.Type of organism Carbon source Energy sourcePhotoautotroph(obtain energy fromchemical reactionstriggered by light.)Carbon dioxidesunPhotoheterotroph Organic compounds fromenviromentlightChemoautotroph OrganicOrganicChemoheterotroph Form own organic compoundsLipids, carbs, proteins
b. In which class would you place an organism that uses?i. glucose as the sole carbon and energy source? Chemoheterotrophii. elemental sulphur as the energy source and CO
2
as its sole carbon source? Lithotroph2. What do the terms anabolism and catabolism mean? Explain the connection betweenthem. Anabolism
 –
synthetic reactions require energy. It synthesises complex molecules.Catabolism
 –
breakdown of reactions that release energy and its conserved as ATP. Oneproduct may serve as a substrate for another reaction. The three main pathways are:fermentation, respiration and photoheterotrophy. Amphibolic
 –
both anabolic and catabolic.3. In your own words define phototroph, chemoorganotroph and chemolithotroph. Use your textbook to find a bacterial example of each.Phototroph
 –
by using light as energy it obtains energy from chemical reactions of respirationand biosynthesis. E.gChemoorganotroph - oxidize the chemical bonds in organic compounds as their energysource. E.g.Chemolithotrophs - an organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganiccompounds
 
4. Name the three most significant electron carriers in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whatis the oxidised and reduced form of each?Eukaryotic
 –
NADH (donor) -> NAD+, NADPH, FADH (FADH2
 –
reduced form, FAD
 –
 oxidised form)Prokaryotic -5. What are the 3 main mechanisms of ATP synthesis? Which of these mechanisms is theprimary mechanism of ATP synthesis in: ATP contains a base, a sugar and 3 phosphates.
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Hydrolysis releasing phosphate (Pi) [hydrolysis of ATP at the terminal phosphate consumesH2O to produces ADP and pi. This release energy from ATP which can then be transferredto a coupled reaction of biosynthesis e.g. building amino acids. The 2 reactions use anenzyme with binding sites specific for ATP.
 –
Hydrolysis releasing pyrophosphate (PPi) [ATP can hydroloyze at te middle of phosphaterealeasing pyrophosphate (ppi). The pyrophosphate usually hydrolyzes shortly after making2p, meaning more energy is spent from ATP. But this in turn drives the reaction forwardbecause twice as much energy will be needed to reverse the reaction.
 –
Phosphorylation of an organic molecule [ATP can transfer its phosphate to the hydroxylgroup of a molecule such as glucose to activate the substrate for a rapid reaction. No water is consumed.6. Explain the major differences between:a. aerobic and anaerobic respiration
 –
aerobic respiration uses oxygen in reactions in the
 Aerobic:1. occurs in presence of oxygen.2. CO2 and water is produced3. lot of energy is liberated (38 ATP)4.occurs in plants' and animals' cells5. C6H12O6 --> CO2 + H2O + ATP ( Energy) Anaerobic:1. occurs in absence of oxygen2.Lactic Acidor Alchol is produced3. relatively small energy is liberated (2ATP)4. occurs in manyanaerobic bacteriaand human muscle cells.5. in muscles, lactic acid is produced while bacteria as Yeast produces Alcohol (Ethanol)6. C6H12O6 --> Lactic acid / C2H5OH + ATP1. Aerobic respirationtake place in the cristae of mitochondria, whileanaerobic respirationoccurs in the cytoplasm.
b. respiration and fermentation
 –
 What are the differences between respiration and fermentation?Respiration: the physical and chemical processes by which an organism supplies its cellsand tissues with the oxygen needed for metabolism and relieves them of the carbon dioxideformed in energy-producing reactions.
 
Fermentation: an enzymatically controlled anaerobic breakdown of an energy-rich compound(as a carbohydrate to carbon dioxide and alcohol or to an organic acid).
Doesn‘t need
oxygenc. substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs during Glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle and involvesthe physical addition of a free phosphate to ADP to form ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation, onthe other hand, takes place along the electron transport chain, where ATP is synthesizedindirectly from the creation of a proton gradient and the movement of these protons backaccross the membrane through the protein channel, ATP synthase. As the protons passthrough, ATP is created.
Substrate-level: production of ATP molecules via transfer of a phosphate group from an intermediatehigh-energy substrate directly to ADP.Oxidative: production of ATP molecules from the redox reactions of anelectron transport chain Gylcolysis andKrebs cycleuse substrate-level phosphorylation. Electron transport chainusesoxidative phosphorylation.
d. active transport & group translocation as mechanisms of nutrient uptake
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Suggestion:
Think about other terms you could be asked to compare.7. a. Explain the difference between an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction.
In an oxidation reaction one of the reactants is releasing, or giving up, electrons, making its oxidationnumber to increase.In a reduction reaction just the opposite happens, one of the reactants is gaining electrons andreducing its oxidation number.
 b. Nitrate is reduced by some bacteria during anaerobic respiration. What is the formula for nitrate? What are the possible end-products of nitrate reduction? What is the environmentalsignificance of this process?NO3- is the formulaEnd products - ammonia, nitrite, or molecular N2It involces the most oxidation steps, and cannot survive without prokaryotes.C. some bacteria use ammonia as an energy source and convert it to nitrate. Is the ammoniaoxidised or reduced in this reaction? What are the names of the two key enzymesresponsible for this conversion? What are their roles? Ammonia oxidation.
It‘s
called nitrification, a form of lithotrophy. Ammonia monooxygenase which oxidizes ammonia to hydroxylamine, and nitriteoxidoreductase, which oxidizes nitrite to nitrate.8. There are 3 major pathways for the conversion of molecules such as glucose to pyruvatein prokaryotes.a. Name the pathways and identify which, if any, are unique to prokaryotes.FermentationGlycolysisCellular respirationb. Draw a table to compare the pathways in terms of ATP produced per molecule of glucose,reduced electron carriers and intermediates for biosynthesis.

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