Fermentation: an enzymatically controlled anaerobic breakdown of an energy-rich compound(as a carbohydrate to carbon dioxide and alcohol or to an organic acid).
oxygenc. substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs during Glycolysis and the Kreb's Cycle and involvesthe physical addition of a free phosphate to ADP to form ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation, onthe other hand, takes place along the electron transport chain, where ATP is synthesizedindirectly from the creation of a proton gradient and the movement of these protons backaccross the membrane through the protein channel, ATP synthase. As the protons passthrough, ATP is created.
Substrate-level: production of ATP molecules via transfer of a phosphate group from an intermediatehigh-energy substrate directly to ADP.Oxidative: production of ATP molecules from the redox reactions of anelectron transport chain Gylcolysis andKrebs cycleuse substrate-level phosphorylation. Electron transport chainusesoxidative phosphorylation.
d. active transport & group translocation as mechanisms of nutrient uptake
Think about other terms you could be asked to compare.7. a. Explain the difference between an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction.
In an oxidation reaction one of the reactants is releasing, or giving up, electrons, making its oxidationnumber to increase.In a reduction reaction just the opposite happens, one of the reactants is gaining electrons andreducing its oxidation number.
b. Nitrate is reduced by some bacteria during anaerobic respiration. What is the formula for nitrate? What are the possible end-products of nitrate reduction? What is the environmentalsignificance of this process?NO3- is the formulaEnd products - ammonia, nitrite, or molecular N2It involces the most oxidation steps, and cannot survive without prokaryotes.C. some bacteria use ammonia as an energy source and convert it to nitrate. Is the ammoniaoxidised or reduced in this reaction? What are the names of the two key enzymesresponsible for this conversion? What are their roles? Ammonia oxidation.
called nitrification, a form of lithotrophy. Ammonia monooxygenase which oxidizes ammonia to hydroxylamine, and nitriteoxidoreductase, which oxidizes nitrite to nitrate.8. There are 3 major pathways for the conversion of molecules such as glucose to pyruvatein prokaryotes.a. Name the pathways and identify which, if any, are unique to prokaryotes.FermentationGlycolysisCellular respirationb. Draw a table to compare the pathways in terms of ATP produced per molecule of glucose,reduced electron carriers and intermediates for biosynthesis.