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Table Of Contents

2.2 PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
2.3 ZONES OF PROTECTION
2.9 PRIMARY AND BACK-UP PROTECTION
2.10 RELAY OUTPUT DEVICES
2.12 TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION
3.5 IMPEDANCE NOTATION
3.6 BASIC CIRCUIT LAWS, THEOREMS AND NETWORK REDUCTION
4.2 THREE-PHASE FAULT CALCULATIONS
4.3 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF A THREE-PHASE NETWORK
4.4 EQUATIONS AND NETWORK CONNECTIONS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FAULTS
4.5 CURRENT AND VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION IN A SYSTEM DUE TO A FAULT
4.6 EFFECT OF SYSTEM EARTHING ON ZERO SEQUENCE QUANTITIES
5.2 SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
5.3 ARMATURE REACTION
5.4. STEADY STATE THEORY
5.5 SALIENT POLE ROTOR
5.6 TRANSIENT ANALYSIS
5.7 ASYMMETRY
5.8 MACHINE REACTANCES
5.9 NEGATIVE SEQUENCE REACTANCE
5.10 ZERO SEQUENCE REACTANCE
5.11 DIRECT AND QUADRATURE AXIS VALUES
5.13 TRANSFORMERS
5.14 TRANSFORMER POSITIVE SEQUENCE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
5.15 TRANSFORMER ZERO SEQUENCE EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
5.16 AUTO-TRANSFORMERS
5.17 TRANSFORMER IMPEDANCES
5.18 OVERHEAD LINES AND CABLES
5.19 CALCULATION OF SERIES IMPEDANCE
5.20 CALCULATION OF SHUNT IMPEDANCE
5.21 OVERHEAD LINE CIRCUITS WITH OR WITHOUT EARTH WIRES
5.22 OHL EQUIVALENT CIRCUITS
5.23 CABLE CIRCUITS
5.24 OVERHEAD LINE AND CABLE DATA
5.25 REFERENCES
6.2 ELECTROMAGNETIC VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
6.3 CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS
6.4 CURRENT TRANSFORMERS
6.5 NOVEL INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS
8.2 UNIT PROTECTION SCHEMES
8.3 TELEPROTECTION COMMANDS
8.5 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
9.2 CO-ORDINATION PROCEDURE
9.3 PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT GRADING
9.4 STANDARD I.D.M.T. OVERCURRENT RELAYS
9.5 COMBINED I.D.M.T. AND HIGH SET INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT RELAYS
9.8 OTHER RELAY CHARACTERISTICS
9.10 RELAY CURRENT SETTING
9.11 RELAY TIME GRADING MARGIN
9.15 RING MAINS
9.16 EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
9.19 EARTH FAULT PROTECTION ON PETERSEN COIL EARTHED NETWORKS
9.20 EXAMPLES OF TIME AND CURRENT GRADING
9.21 REFERENCES
10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 CONVENTION OF DIRECTION
10.4 CIRCULATING CURRENT SYSTEM
10.5 BALANCED VOLTAGE SYSTEM
10.6 SUMMATION ARRANGEMENTS
10.7 EXAMPLES OF ELECTROMECHANICAL AND STATIC UNIT PROTECTION SYSTEMS
10.8 DIGITAL/NUMERICAL CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION SYSTEMS
10.9 CARRIER UNIT PROTECTION SCHEMES
10.10 CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME – ANALOGUE TECHNIQUES
10.11 PHASE COMPARISION PROTECTION SCHEME CONSIDERATIONS
10.12 EXAMPLES
10.13 REFERENCES
11.1 INTRODUCTION
11.2 PRINCIPLES OF DISTANCE RELAYS
11.3 RELAY PERFORMANCE
11.6 ZONES OF PROTECTION
11.7 DISTANCE RELAY CHARACTERISTICS
11.8 DISTANCE RELAY IMPLEMENTATION
11.10 DISTANCE RELAY APPLICATION PROBLEMS
11.11 OTHER DISTANCE RELAY FEATURES
11.12 DISTANCE RELAY APPLICATION EXAMPLE
11.13 REFERENCES
12.1 INTRODUCTION
13.5 MULTI-ENDED FEEDERS – APPLICATION OF DISTANCE PROTECTION SCHEMES
13.6 PROTECTION OF SERIES COMPENSATED LINES
14.1 INTRODUCTION
14.2 APPLICATION OF AUTO-RECLOSING
14.4 FACTORS INFLUENCING HV AUTO-RECLOSE
14.5 AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV TRANSMISSION LINES
14.6 HIGH SPEED AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV SYSTEMS
14.7 SINGLE-PHASE AUTO-RECLOSING
14.8 HIGH-SPEED AUTO-RECLOSING ON LINES EMPLOYING DISTANCE SCHEMES
14.9 DELAYED AUTO-RECLOSING ON EHV SYSTEMS
14.10 OPERATING FEATURES OF AUTO-RECLOSE
14.12 EXAMPLES OF AUTO-RECLOSE APPLICATIONS
15.1 INTRODUCTION
15.2 BUSBAR FAULTS
15.3 PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS
15.4 TYPES OF PROTECTION SYSTEM
15.5 SYSTEM PROTECTION SCHEMES
15.7 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION PRINCIPLES
15.10 NUMERICAL BUSBAR PROTECTION
15.11 REFERENCES
16.1 INTRODUCTION
16.2 WINDING FAULTS
16.3 MAGNETISING INRUSH
16.4 TRANSFORMER OVERHEATING
16.5 TRANSFORMER PROTECTION – OVERVIEW
16.6 TRANSFORMER OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
16.7 RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
16.8 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
16.9 DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION STABILISATION DURING MAGNETISING INRUSH CONDITIONS
16.10 COMBINED DIFFERENTIAL AND RESTRICTED EARTH FAULT SCHEMES
16.11 EARTHING TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
16.12 AUTOTRANSFORMER PROTECTION
16.13 OVERFLUXING PROTECTION
16.14 TANK-EARTH PROTECTION
16.15 OIL AND GAS DEVICES
16.16 TRANSFORMER-FEEDER PROTECTION
16.17 INTERTRIPPING
16.18 CONDITION MONITORING OF TRANSFORMERS
16.19 EXAMPLES OF TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
Generator Transformer Protection
17.8 STATOR EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
17.9 OVERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
17.10 UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
17.12 UNBALANCED LOADING
17.15 ROTOR FAULTS
17.16 LOSS OF EXCITATION PROTECTION
17.17 POLE SLIPPING PROTECTION
17.19 MECHANICAL FAULTS
17.21 EMBEDDED GENERATION
19.3 THERMAL (OVERLOAD) PROTECTION
19.4 START/STALL PROTECTION
19.6 EARTH FAULT PROTECTION
19.7 NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE PROTECTION
19.9 RTD TEMPERATURE DETECTION
19.10 BEARING FAILURES
19.11 UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
19.12 LOSS-OF-LOAD PROTECTION
19.14 MOTOR PROTECTION EXAMPLES
20.1 INTRODUCTION
20.6 AUTOTRANSFORMER FEEDING
20.7 FEEDER SUBSTATION PROTECTION
20.8 EXAMPLE OF CLASSICAL SYSTEM PROTECTION
21.1 INTRODUCTION
21.2 ELECTRICAL TYPE TESTS
21.3 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY TESTS
21.4 PRODUCT SAFETY TYPE TESTS
21.5 ENVIRONMENTAL TYPE TESTS
21.6 SOFTWARE TYPE TESTS
21.7 DYNAMIC VALIDATION TYPE TESTING
21.8 PRODUCTION TESTING
21.9 COMMISSIONING TESTS
21.10 SECONDARY INJECTION TEST EQUIPMENT
21.11 SECONDARY INJECTION TESTING
21.12 PRIMARY INJECTION TESTS
21.13 TESTING OF PROTECTION SCHEME LOGIC
21.14 TRIPPING AND ALARM ANNUNCIATION TESTS
21.15 PERIODIC MAINTENANCE TESTS
21.17 REFERENCES
22.1 INTRODUCTION
22.2 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
22.3 DIGITAL TRANSDUCER TECHNOLOGY
22.4 ANALOGUE TRANSDUCER TECHNOLOGY
22.5 TRANSDUCER SELECTION
22.6 MEASUREMENT CENTRES
22.7 TARIFF METERING
22.8 SYNCHRONISERS
22.9 DISTURBANCE RECORDERS
23.1 INTRODUCTION
23.4 POWER QUALITY MONITORING
23.5 REMEDIAL MEASURES
23.6 EXAMPLES
24.1 INTRODUCTION
24.2 TOPOLOGY AND FUNCTIONALITY
24.3 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
24.5 SUBSTATION AUTOMATION FUNCTIONALITY
24.6 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND TESTING
24.7 EXAMPLES OF SUBSTATION AUTOMATION
Distribution system automation
25.1 INTRODUCTION
25.2 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE APPLICATION OF AUTOMATION TO DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS
25.3 PRIMARY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AUTOMATION
25.6 COMMUNICATIONS
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Network Protection and Automation Guide

Network Protection and Automation Guide

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Published by bhaskar

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Published by: bhaskar on Feb 08, 2009
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