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Cellulose

Cellulose

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Published by Paul Muljadi
Cellulose
Cellulose

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Published by: Paul Muljadi on Jan 06, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/31/2015

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Cellulose1
Cellulose
Cellulose
[1]
Identifiers
CAS number9004-34-6
 [2] 
UNIISMD1X3XO9M
 [3] 
EC-number232-674-9
 [4]
ChEMBLCHEMBL1201676
 [5] 
Properties
Molecular formula(C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
Appearancewhite powderDensity1.5 g/cm
3
Melting pointdecomp.Solubility in waternone
Hazards
EU Indexnot listedNFPA 704
Related compounds
Related compoundsStarch
 
(verify)
 [6] 
(what is:
 
 / 
 
?)Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)Infobox references
Cellulose
is an organic compound with the formula (C
6
H
10
O
5
)
n
, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1
4) linked
D
-glucose units.
[7][8]
Cellulose is the structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and theoomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most common organic compound onEarth. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose (the cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is40
 – 
50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 75%).
[9][10][11]
For industrial use, cellulose today is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton. Cellulose is mainly used toproduce paperboard and paper; to a smaller extent it is converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as
 
Cellulose2cellophane and rayon. Converting cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is underinvestigation as an alternative fuel source.Some animals, particularly ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organismsthat live in their guts. Humans can digest cellulose to some extent,
[12][13]
however it mainly acts as a hydrophilicbulking agent for feces and is often referred to as "dietary fiber".
History
Cellulose was discovered in 1838 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who isolated it from plant matter anddetermined its chemical formula.
[7][14][15]
Cellulose was used to produce the first successful thermoplastic polymer,celluloid, by Hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870. Hermann Staudinger determined the polymer structure of cellulose in 1920. The compound was first chemically synthesized (without the use of any biologically derivedenzymes) in 1992, by Kobayashi and Shoda.
[16]Cellulose in a plant cell.
Products
Cotton fibres represent the purest natural form of cellulose, containing more than 90% of thiscarbohydrate.
The kraft process is used to separate cellulose from lignin, anothermajor component of plant matter. Cellulose is the major constituent of paper, paperboard, and card stock and of textiles made from cotton,linen, and other plant fibers.Cellulose can be converted into cellophane, a thin transparent film, andinto rayon, an important fiber that has been used for textiles since thebeginning of the 20th century. Both cellophane and rayon are known as"regenerated cellulose fibers"; they are identical to cellulose inchemical structure and are usually made from dissolving pulp viaviscose. A more recent and environmentally friendly method toproduce a form of rayon is the Lyocell process. Cellulose is the rawmaterial in the manufacture of nitrocellulose (cellulose nitrate) which is used in smokeless gunpowder and as thebase material for celluloid used for photographic and movie films until the mid 1930s.Cellulose is used to make water-soluble adhesives and binders such as methyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulosewhich are used in wallpaper paste. Microcrystalline cellulose (E460i) and powdered cellulose (E460ii) are used asinactive fillers in tablets
[17]
and as thickeners and stabilizers in processed foods. Cellulose powder is for exampleused in Kraft's Parmesan cheese to prevent caking inside the tube.Cellulose is used in the laboratory as the stationary phase for thin layer chromatography. Cellulose fibers are alsoused in liquid filtration, sometimes in combination with diatomaceous earth or other filtration media, to create a filterbed of inert material. Cellulose is further used to make hydrophilic and highly absorbent sponges.
 
Cellulose3Cellulose insulation made from recycled paper is becoming popular as an environmentally preferable material forbuilding insulation. It can be treated with boric acid as a fire retardant.Cellulose consists of crystalline and amorphous regions. By treating it with strong acid, the amorphous regions canbe broken up, thereby producing nanocrystalline cellulose, a novel material with many desirable properties.
[18]
Recently, nanocrystalline cellulose was used as the filler phase in bio-based polymer matrices to producenanocomposites with superior thermal and mechanical properties.
[19]
Cellulose source and energy crops
The major combustible component of non-food energy crops is cellulose, with lignin second. Non-food energy cropsare more efficient than edible energy crops (which have a large starch component), but still compete with food cropsfor agricultural land and water resources.
[20]
Typical non-food energy crops include industrial hemp (thoughoutlawed in some countries), switchgrass,
 Miscanthus
,
Salix
(willow), and
 Populus
(poplar) species.Some bacteria can convert cellulose into ethanol which can then be used as a fuel; see cellulosic ethanol.
A strand of cellulose (conformation I
α
), showingthe hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and betweencellulose molecules.
Structure and properties
Cellulose has no taste, is odorless, is hydrophilic with the contact angleof 20
 – 
30,
[21]
is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, is chiraland is biodegradable. It can be broken down chemically into itsglucose units by treating it with concentrated acids at high temperature.Cellulose is derived from
D
-glucose units, which condense throughβ(1
4)-glycosidic bonds. This linkage motif contrasts with that forα(1
4)-glycosidic bonds present in starch, glycogen, and othercarbohydrates. Cellulose is a straight chain polymer: unlike starch, nocoiling or branching occurs, and the molecule adopts an extended andrather stiff rod-like conformation, aided by the equatorial conformationof the glucose residues. The multiple hydroxyl groups on the glucosefrom one chain form hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms on the sameor on a neighbor chain, holding the chains firmly together side-by-side and forming
microfibrils
with high tensilestrength. This strength is important in cell walls, where the microfibrils are meshed into a carbohydrate
matrix
,conferring rigidity to plant cells.
A triple strand of cellulose showing the hydrogenbonds (cyan lines) between glucose strands
Compared to starch, cellulose is also much more crystalline. Whereasstarch undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition when heatedbeyond 60
 – 
70 °C in water (as in cooking), cellulose requires atemperature of 320 °C and pressure of 25 MPa to become amorphousin water.
[22]
Several different crystalline structures of cellulose are known,corresponding to the location of hydrogen bonds between and withinstrands. Natural cellulose is cellulose I, with structures I
α
and I
β
. Cellulose produced by bacteria and algae isenriched in I
α
while cellulose of higher plants consists mainly of I
β
. Cellulose in regenerated cellulose fibers iscellulose II. The conversion of cellulose I to cellulose II is irreversible, suggesting that cellulose I is metastable andcellulose II is stable. With various chemical treatments it is possible to produce the structures cellulose III andcellulose IV.
[23]
Many properties of cellulose depend on its chain length or degree of polymerization, the number of glucose units thatmake up one polymer molecule. Cellulose from wood pulp has typical chain lengths between 300 and 1700 units;

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Kimberly Davis added this note
Information I have needed for some time... Great job and "thank you" Paul Muljadi
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