Cellulose3Cellulose insulation made from recycled paper is becoming popular as an environmentally preferable material forbuilding insulation. It can be treated with boric acid as a fire retardant.Cellulose consists of crystalline and amorphous regions. By treating it with strong acid, the amorphous regions canbe broken up, thereby producing nanocrystalline cellulose, a novel material with many desirable properties.
Recently, nanocrystalline cellulose was used as the filler phase in bio-based polymer matrices to producenanocomposites with superior thermal and mechanical properties.
Cellulose source and energy crops
The major combustible component of non-food energy crops is cellulose, with lignin second. Non-food energy cropsare more efficient than edible energy crops (which have a large starch component), but still compete with food cropsfor agricultural land and water resources.
Typical non-food energy crops include industrial hemp (thoughoutlawed in some countries), switchgrass,
(poplar) species.Some bacteria can convert cellulose into ethanol which can then be used as a fuel; see cellulosic ethanol.
A strand of cellulose (conformation I
), showingthe hydrogen bonds (dashed) within and betweencellulose molecules.
Structure and properties
Cellulose has no taste, is odorless, is hydrophilic with the contact angleof 20
is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, is chiraland is biodegradable. It can be broken down chemically into itsglucose units by treating it with concentrated acids at high temperature.Cellulose is derived from
-glucose units, which condense throughβ(1
4)-glycosidic bonds. This linkage motif contrasts with that forα(1
4)-glycosidic bonds present in starch, glycogen, and othercarbohydrates. Cellulose is a straight chain polymer: unlike starch, nocoiling or branching occurs, and the molecule adopts an extended andrather stiff rod-like conformation, aided by the equatorial conformationof the glucose residues. The multiple hydroxyl groups on the glucosefrom one chain form hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms on the sameor on a neighbor chain, holding the chains firmly together side-by-side and forming
with high tensilestrength. This strength is important in cell walls, where the microfibrils are meshed into a carbohydrate
,conferring rigidity to plant cells.
A triple strand of cellulose showing the hydrogenbonds (cyan lines) between glucose strands
Compared to starch, cellulose is also much more crystalline. Whereasstarch undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition when heatedbeyond 60
70 °C in water (as in cooking), cellulose requires atemperature of 320 °C and pressure of 25 MPa to become amorphousin water.
Several different crystalline structures of cellulose are known,corresponding to the location of hydrogen bonds between and withinstrands. Natural cellulose is cellulose I, with structures I
. Cellulose produced by bacteria and algae isenriched in I
while cellulose of higher plants consists mainly of I
. Cellulose in regenerated cellulose fibers iscellulose II. The conversion of cellulose I to cellulose II is irreversible, suggesting that cellulose I is metastable andcellulose II is stable. With various chemical treatments it is possible to produce the structures cellulose III andcellulose IV.
Many properties of cellulose depend on its chain length or degree of polymerization, the number of glucose units thatmake up one polymer molecule. Cellulose from wood pulp has typical chain lengths between 300 and 1700 units;