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Inductor design

# Inductor design

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Inductor design
Inductor design

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01/06/2013

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Overview
Inductance (measured in henry)is an effect which results from themagneticfield that forms around

acurrentcarrying conductor. Current flowing through the inductor creates a magnetic field which hasan associated electromotive field which opposes the applied voltage. This counter electromotiveforce (emf) is generated which opposes the change in voltage applied to the inductor and current inthe inductor resists the change but does rise. This is known as inductive reactance. It is opposite inphase to capacitive reactance. Inductance can be increased by looping the conductor into a coil whichcreates a larger magnetic field.
Stored energy
The energy (measured in joules, in SI) stored by an inductor is equal to the amount of work requiredto establish the current flowing through the inductor, and therefore the magnetic field. This is givenby:where
L
is inductance and
is the current flowing through the inductor.
Hydraulic model
As electrical current can be modeled by fluid flow, much like water through pipes; the inductor can bemodeled by the flywheel effect of a turbine rotated by the flow. As can be demonstrated intuitivelyand mathematically, this mimics the behavior of an electrical inductor; current is the integral of voltage, in cases of a sudden interruption of flow it will generate a high pressure across the blockage,etc. Magnetic interactions such astransformers, however, are not modeled.
In electric circuits
While a capacitor resists changes in voltage, an inductor resists changes in current. An ideal inductorwould offer no resistance to direct current, however, all real-worldinductorshave non-zero electricalresistance.In general, the relationship between the time-varying voltage
(
) across an inductor withinductance
L
and the time-varying current
(
) passing through it is described by the differentialequation:When a sinusoidal alternating current (AC) flows through an inductor, a sinusoidal alternating voltage(or electromotive force (emf) ) is induced. The amplitude of the emf is equal to the amplitude of the current and to the frequency of the sinusoid by the following equation. The phase of the current lagsthat of the voltage by 90 degrees. In a capacitor the current leads voltage by 90 degrees. When theinductor is combined with a capacitor, in series or parallel, an LC circuit is formed with a specificresonant frequency:
where ω is the

angular frequency
of the sinusoid defined in terms of the frequency
as:

Inductive reactance, Xl, is defined as:where
X
is the
inductive reactance, ω is the angular frequency,

is the frequency in hertz, and
L
isthe inductance in henries. Inductive reactance is the positive component of  impedance.It is measured in ohms. The impedance

of an inductor (inductive reactance) is then given by:where
X
L
is in ohms.When using the Laplace transform in circuit analysis, the inductive impedance is represented inthe
s
domain by:In an ideal inductor, the current lags be
hind the voltage by 90° or π/2 radians, but since physical
inductors are made from wire that has resistance, a combination resistive-inductive circuit resultscausing the Q of the tank to be lower.
Inductor networks
Inductors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential difference (voltage). To find theirtotal equivalent inductance (
L
eq
):The current through inductors in series stays the same, but the voltage across each inductor can bedifferent. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. To find their totalinductance:These relationships hold true only in the limit that they are in magnetically decoupled environments.

Q
Factor
There has not been an ideal inductor created to-date, the nearest approximation being a supercooledinductor (for example, one cooled with liquid nitrogen or a similar supercooled substance). In the realworld inductors have a series resistance created by the copper or other electrically conductive metalwire forming thecoils. This series resistance converts the electrical current flowing through the coilsinto heat, thus causing a loss of inductive quality. This is where the quality factor is born. The qualityfactor is a ratio of the inductance to the resistance.The quality factor of an inductor can be found through this formula, where
R
is its internal electrical

resistance:
Formulae
1. Basic inductance formula:
L
= Inductance in henries
μ
0
of free space = 4π × 10
-7
H/m

μ
= relative permeability of core material
= number of turns
A
= area of cross-section of the coil in square metres (m
2
)
= length of coil in metres (m)2. Inductance of a straight wire conductor:
L
= inductance in nH
= length of conductor
= diameter of conductor in the same units as
(note: the following formulas were optimized to be used with imperial units)3. Inductance of air core inductor in terms of geometric parameters:
L

= inductance in μH

= outer radius of coil in inches
= length of coil in inches
= number of turns4. For multilayered air core coil: