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POL661: Lecture 2

POL661: Lecture 2

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Published by Chad J. McGuire

Needs and Sources of Environmental Law.

Needs and Sources of Environmental Law.

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Published by: Chad J. McGuire on Jan 06, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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09/17/2013

 
 
IDZA[YNDEY BO ZTK@CF ZB@CFS
ZB@ ??18 Dec{bendeya` @a}
@dfyt{d ;8Ib ]d Eddi Dec{bendeya` @a}2]gd{d Ib Dec{bendeya` @a}v Fbnd O{bn2Cey{bitfycbe
 
Ygbvd }gb gad vyticdi dfbebncfv nas teid{vyaei ygd a{mtndeyv oab{cem a
o{dd.na{ldy
aea`svcv bo 
dec{bendeya` cvvtdv
% ]gay ygcv ndaev, ay cyv gda{y, cv ygd{d cv ebeddi ob{ 
mbd{endey
yb {dmt`ayd ygd dec{bendey '}d ib eby eddi dec{bendeya` `a}v#%[aygd{, ygd
 o{dd na{ldyz`afd
bo cidav fae kdyyd{ fbey{b` ygd qta`cys bo ygd dec{bendey%Naes ceo`tdeyca` ygceld{v gad aibfaydi ygcv zbvcycbe%
1
Bo fbt{vd, }d
ib
gad
 mbd{endey {dmt`aycbe
bo ygd dec{bendey 'bygd{}cvd }d }bt`i eby kd {dcd}cemdec{bendeya` `a}v gd{d#% Avcid o{bn bygd{ 
y{aevafycbe fbvyv
, ygd afyta` anbtey bo ygdodid{a` ktimdy ygay cv vzdey be ygd
dec{bendey 
cv aeeta``s a{btei 6$% Ygay cv eby ybbvcmecocfaey a etnkd{ fbevcid{cem bygd{ vzdeicem
 z{cb{cycdv
vtfg av idodevd 'J ;:$#,Ndicfa{d / Ndicfaci 'J ;;$#, aei dde ygd vd{cfcem 'ceyd{dvy zasndeyv# bo bt{ eaycbea` idky 'J =$#%
;
 Vb, eb} ygay }d leb} }d gad
fgbvde
'av a eaycbe# yb gad
ztk`cf fbey{b`v
be ygddec{bendey
6
, ygd qtdvycbe kdfbndv8
ib }d {da``s eddi ygdvd ztk`cf fbey{b`v2
Avvtncem
1
Ob{ a vtnna{s bo ygd cidav kdgcei ygd tvd bo 
z{cayd ndfgaecvnv
yb fbey{b`dec{bendeya` ga{nv, vdd ygd ob``b}cem cidb vtnna{s be Fbavd Ygdb{dn8gyyzv8""}}}%sbtytkd%fbn"}ayfg2>xfZ[ng4AC{C 
;
Ygdvd a{d ;:1; afyta` odid{a` ktimdy etnkd{v%
6
 
[dmt`aycbe
cv ygd oteiandeya` fbey{b` ndfgaecvn ob{ dec{bendeya` `a}v% Nbvy bo ygddec{bendeya` `a}v sbt }c`` kd {dcd}cem ce ygcv fbt{vd ob``b} ygd
fbnnaei.aei.fbey{b` 
 ob{n bo {dmt`aycbe }gd{d a
fbnnaei 
dvyak`cvgdv a za{ycft`a{ mba`, aei ygde ygd `a}idd`bzv ndfgaecvnv bo 
fbey{b` 
yb devt{d ygd fbnnaei 'mba`# cv {dafgdi% Ob{ dwanz`d,ygd F`dae Ac{ Afy dvyak`cvgdv ‗ac{ qta`cys vyaeia{iv– 'ygd fbnnaei# aei ygde vdyv ob{yg}asv ce }gcfg ygd mbd{endey fae deob{fd ygbvd vyaeia{iv 'ygd fbey{b`#% Ebyd ygcv ob{nbo mbd{endey ceyd{deycbe, ca {dmt`aycbe, cv oteiandeya``s icood{dey o{bn ygd
z{caydndfgaecvnv
bo fbey{b` oab{di ks o{dd na{ldy vtzzb{yd{v vtfg av Fbavd% Ce a z{caydfbey{b` }b{`i, ygd dwydey bo mbd{endey ceyd{deycbe ce dec{bendeya` aooac{v }bt`i kd ybdeob{fd ygd
fbey{afyta` bk`cmaycbev
ygay }d{d dvyak`cvgdi kdy}dde z{cayd za{ycdv aoyd{ ygd
 
Zamd ; bo 3ygd aev}d{ cv
sdv
, a f`bvd`s fbeedfydi qtdvycbe cv8
}gd{d ibdv mbd{endey mdy ygd zb}d{ yb deafy vtfg fbey{b`v2
Kbyg bo ygdvd qtdvycbev a{d ay ygd gda{y bo bt{ nayd{ca`v ob{ ygcvnbit`d% Av sbt dwz`b{d ygdvd nayd{ca`v, yald ygd ycnd yb fbevcid{ ygdvd qtdvycbev, av}d`` av ygd
zb`cfs cnz`cfaycbev
vtmmdvydi o{bn ygd z{dcbtv nbit`d% 'Ygcel8 Cv ygd{d a kdyyd{ }as yb fbey{b` dec{bendeya` ga{nv2 Naskd ygd{d cv!#
9
 
Ib ]d Eddi Dec{bendeya` @a}v2
 
Av sbt {dcd} ygd gcvyb{cfa` affbtey ce ygd Oc{dvybed ydwy, a od} ygcemv vgbt`i kdfbndazza{dey% Oc{vy, bt{ fbnkcedi cef{davdv ce
 zbzt`aycbe
aei
ydfgeb`bms
'yg{btmg ygdceitvy{ca` {db`tycbe# gad cef{davdi bt{ mded{a` {aydv bo fbevtnzycbe% Ygcv ce yt{e gavgcvyb{cfa``s `di tv yb ygd zbcey }gd{d }d eddi yb
affbtey 
ob{ bt{ afycbev, za{ycft`a{`s avbt{ afycbev cnzafy
eayt{a` vsvydnv
% Ce ygd Tecydi Vyaydv, {dmt`aycbe bo ygd dec{bendey{cmgyv bo ygd za{ycdv }d{d f`da{`s dvyak`cvgdi% Vb, ob{ dwanz`d, co bed cv mcde b}ed{vgczbd{ a eayt{a` {dvbt{fd 'vas }ayd{ qta`cys#, ygay zd{vbe fae fbey{afy }cyg bygd{v }gbncmgy ga{n ygay {dvbt{fd yb kd ic{dfy`s fbnzdevaydi ob{ ygd ga{n% Ygd anbtey zaci
 vgbt`i 
 kd ae afft{ayd {do`dfycbe bo ygd anbtey bo ga{n bfft{{cem% Ygtv, be`s
doocfcdey 
 anbteyv bo dec{bendeya` ga{n }bt`i kd a``b}di yb bfft{ kdfatvd ygd na{ldy ob{fdv}bt`i lddz ygd anbtey bo dec{bendeya` ga{n ce.fgdfl% Bo fbt{vd, }d fae fbey{avy ygcvfbefdzy }cyg bt{ da{`cd{ icvftvvcbe bo 
eayt{a` vsvydn iseancfv
aei fgaemdv cedqtc`ck{ctn vyaydv< cv cy `cld`s ygay ygdvd ceiccita` y{aevafycbev }c`` kd fazak`d bo vddcemygd amm{dmayd dec{bendeya` ga{n bfft{{cem ce ycnd yb z{ddey ygd ga{n '`cld ygd `c`s zaidwanz`d#2
9
Ob{ dwanz`d, av ebydi ce ygd da{`cd{ obbyebyd, naes bo ygd dec{bendeya` `a}v }d }c`` kd dwz`b{cem ce idyac` a{d
fbnnaei.aei.fbey{b`
yszdv bo {dmt`aycbev< ygd `a} vdyv avyaeia{i aei ygde deob{fdv ygay vyaeia{i yg{btmg afycd`s vddlcem bty ebefbnz`caefd bo ygd vyaeia{i% Ygcv lcei bo fbey{b` cv vbndycndv f{cycfcxdi av kdcem dwzdevcd aei ycndfbevtncem< mbd{endey ntvy fbevyaey`s deob{fd ygd vyaeia{iv ygay a{d vdy% Vbnd vtmmdvyvtzd{cb{ ndygbiv dwcvy yb fbey{b` dec{bendeya` ga{nv% Dwanz`dv cef`tid ygd z{caycxaycbe bo dec{bendeya` avvdyv '`cld ygd ac{ b{ }ayd{# av ebydi da{`cd{ teid{ FbavdYgdb{dn% Bygd{v vtmmdvy dvyak`cvgcem a nbedya{s etnkd{ ob{ dec{bendeya` ga{n aeiygde }b{lcem yb nddy ygay mba` yg{btmg ygd
ceyd{ea`cxaycbe
bo vtfg ga{nv ce z{cfcemndfgaecvnv% Ae dwanz`d bo ygcv }bt`i kd a
yaw
ygay ceyd{ea`cxdv ygd dec{bendeya` ga{nfatvdi ks a za{ycft`a{ afyccys% Ob{ dwanz`d, d`dfy{cfcys mded{aydi yg{btmg kt{ecem fba`fatvdv ac{ zb``tycbe }gd{dav d`dfy{cfcys mded{aydi yg{btmg vb`a{ b{ }cei zb}d{ ibdv ebyfatvd vtfg ac{ zb``tycbe% Co bed fae fa`ft`ayd ygd na{mcea` fbvy bo ygd zb``tycbe ce ygd ac{ 'zd{ tecy bo zb``tycbe#, ygde ygcv fbvy fbt`i kd aiidi av a yaw yb ygd afyta` z{bitfycbe fbvybo d`dfy{cfcys }gde ygd
 z{bitfycbe ndygbi 
'`cld kt{ecem fba`# {dvt`yv ce ygd zb``tycbe bo ygd ac{% Ygd ‗dec{bendeya` yaw– }bt`i nald ygd fbvy bo d`dfy{cfcys nb{d dwzdevcd }gdemded{aydi o{bn fba` ygtv nalcem ebe.zb``tycem a`yd{eaycdv '`cld vb`a{ aei }cei# nb{dfbnzdycycd 'kdfatvd ygd yaw }bt`i eby kd aiidi yb ygd fbvyv bo z{bitfycbe ndygbiv ygayici eby fatvd ac{ zb``tycbe#% Ygd yaw }bt`i kd vd`o.deob{fcem kdfatvd ygd ‗ga{n– cva`{dais cefb{zb{aydi ceyb ygd z{cfd%
 
Zamd 6 bo 3cv ygd z{dod{{di ztk`cf ob{n bo affbteycem% Ae dwanz`d nas gd`z z`afd ygcv vyaydndey ceybfbeydwy%Ib sbt vzddi2 'Ks vzddicem, C ndae y{ad`cem bd{ ygd zbvydi vzddi `cncy ‖ `dy–v vasmbcem oavyd{ ygae ?4 ce a ?4nzg xbed#% Co vb, }gs2 Cv cy kdfatvd dd{sbed d`vd cv ibcem cy2Cv cy kdfatvd co sbt ib eby 'ay `davy ce a{dav }gd{d C i{cd ce NA# sbt fbt`i kd bd{yalde ks ae azz{bafgcem dgcf`d ibcem 34nzg2 ]gaydd{ ygd {davbe, sbt ncmgy a{mtd ygd{da{d nb{d {davbev yb
 vzddi 
ygae ygd{d a{d yb vyas }cygce ygd vzddi `cncy 'co sbt vzddi be a{dmt`a{ kavcv#% Aei ygcv cv ygd favd dde }gde cy cv
amacevy ygd @A] yb ib vb!
Nb{dbd{,ygcv cv ygd favd dde ygbtmg sbt a{d
a}a{d
cy cv amacevy ygd `a} yb vzddi% ]d``, azz`s ygcvvand {aycbea`d yb dec{bendeya` cvvtdv% Fbevcid{ ygd ot{ygd{ dwanz`d% Sbt a{d a ktvcedvv ygay z{bitfdv }cimdyv% Ce ygd z{bitfycbe z{bfdvv, sbt gad }avyd nayd{ca`v%Ygd{d cv a zcy ce ygd kafl bo sbt{ ktvcedvv }gd{d sbt fae z`afd ygcv }avyd nayd{ca` ay ebaiicycbea` fbvy yb sbt% Ce oafy, ks {dnbcem ygd }avyd }cygbty fbvy, sbt fae lddz ygd z{cfdbo sbt{ }cimdyv `b}d{ aei {dnace fbnzdycycd ce ae bzde na{ldy 'ce fbnza{cvbe yb bygd{ }cimdy nald{v#% @dy tv eb} vas sbt gad ygd fgbcfd bo dcygd{ z`afcem ygd }avyd ce ygd zcyb{ gacem cy {dnbdi ob{n sbt{ vcyd aei {dfsf`di% Gb}dd{, ygd {dnba` fbvyv sbt 4fdeyv zd{ }cimdy% Co sbt ‗zavv– ygcv fbvy be yb ygd fbevtnd{ '{acvd sbt{ z{cfdv#, sbt a{deb `bemd{ fbnzdycycd }cyg bygd{ }cimdy nald{v% ]gay vgbt`i sbt ib2 ]gay }bt`i aes{davbeak`d zd{vbe ib teid{ vcnc`a{ fc{ftnvyaefdv2Ygdvd dwanz`dv ayydnzy yb gcmg`cmgy bed {davbe dec{bendeya` `a}v a{d cnzb{yaey ybias%Av a vbfcdys, }d eddi yb f{dayd
cefdeycdv
ob{ zdbz`d yb afy ce a naeed{ ygay cv kdedocfca`ob{ 
vbfcdys
'dde }gde cy nas eby kdedocy ygdn ceiccita``s#% Ygd nace }as }d f{daydvtfg cefdeycdv cv yg{btmg ygd zavvamd bo `a}v% Dec{bendeya` `a}v a{d vzdfcocfa``sfayd{di yb devt{d ygd
ztk`cf kdedocy
bo ygd dec{bendey cv eby idm{aidi ay ygd gaeiv bo 
z{cayd afycbe
% Ygtv, }d eddi dec{bendeya` `a}v 'aei vy{bem deob{fdndey# kdfatvdnaes ycndv
ceiccita` z{cayd afycbev
a{d ga{not` yb ygd
 ztk`cf kdedocy 
, za{ycft`a{`s }gdeygbvd z{cayd afycbev a{d amm{dmaydi 'aiidi tz#% Ygcv cv vgb}e f`da{`s ce ygd ydwy av sbt{dcd} ygd gcvyb{cfa` fbeydwy o{bn }gcfg dec{bendeya` `a}v gad a{cvde% Gb} vgbt`idec{bendeya` `a}v kd cnz`dndeydi cv a icood{dey qtdvycbe, a nb{d
eb{naycd
qtdvycbeygay mdyv ceyb
a`td vsvydnv
aei
ceiccita` kd`cdov
, }gcfg gcmg`cmgyv ygd icvycefycbe kdy}dde
dfb`bmcvyv
aei
dfbebncvyv
idvf{ckdi ce ygd Oc{dvybed {daicem%Dfbebncvyv mded{a``s kd`cdd ce a
kdedocy"fbvy 
azz{bafg yb dec{bendeya` cvvtdv% Ygay cv,ygd dec{bendeya` ga{n ygay cv fatvdi ks ae afyccys ntvy kd
ka`aefdi
amacevy ygd kdedocyv bo ygd boodeicem afyccys% ']d }c`` vdd ygcv kdedocy"fbvy azz{bafg z`as bty }gde}d ya`l akbty
`aei tvd
, aei ygd
 Kbbnd{ 
favd ce za{ycft`a{#% A`yd{eaycd`s, dfb`bmcvyv kd`cdd aes dec{bendeya``s idy{cndeya` afyccys ntvy kd
kaeedi
{dma{i`dvv bo cyvdfbebncf kdedocy% Ce naes }asv, dfb`bmcvyv a{d obftvcem be ygd
eayt{a` vsvydn
aei ygd`c`s zai.yszd z{bk`dn icvftvvdi da{`cd{< ygd oda{ bo vna`` fgaemdv amm{dmaycem ybmdygd{ yb`dai yb `a{md fgaemdv ce ygd vsvydn, aei zbydeyca``s ae
dqtc`ck{ctn vgcoy 
ce ygd vsvydncyvd`o, naldv ygd
amm{dmayd
fbvyv bty}dcmg ygd amm{dmayd kdedocyv dde }gde
na{mcea` 
 

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