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POL661: Lecture 3

POL661: Lecture 3

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Published by Chad J. McGuire

Finding the Law

Finding the Law

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Published by: Chad J. McGuire on Jan 06, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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09/17/2013

 
 
HDVL^X@DMX JE VTNKIO VJKIOY
VJK 55<7 Dmui~jm`dmxlk Kl
Kdoxt~d ?7Bj xj Eimh xbd Kl:Imx~jhtoxijm
 
Sd blud nddm imx~jhtodh xj sj`d je xbd
vjkioy
xblx h~iuds kl "imokthimc sj`d |tdsxijmsje 
d|tixy
lmh
 eli~mdss
) Sd blud lksj nddm imx~jhtodh xj xbd ojmodvx je 
dmui~jm`dmxlkkl
"e~j` xbd |tdsxijm je bdxbd~ d mddh stob kls)+ lmh d dsxlnkisbdh xbd
sjt~od
je dmui~jm`dmxlk kls "xbd
 vjd~ 
e~j` biob xbd T_ cjud~m`dmx hd~iuds xbd lnikixy xj~dctklxd xbd dmui~jm`dmx ‟ e~j` xbd Oj``d~od Okltsd je xbd T_ Ojmsxixtxijm xj xbdsxlxtxds o~dlxdh ny Ojmc~dss xj kdcixi`iwd vjkioy hi~doxijms)Ndej~d d hiud imxj svdoieioT_ dmui~jm`dmxlk kls+ d `tsx ei~sx dsxlnkisb sj`d tmhd~sxlmhimc jm
bj xj eimh xbdkl
 Sd hisotss xbis i`vj~xlmx xjvio ndoltsd+ bikd tmhd~sxlmhimc lnsx~lox v~imoivkds je kl is i`vj~xlmx+ xbd lnikixy xj
 eimh xbd kl
is lm mdodssl~y xjjk ej~ xbjsd bj isb xjetkky tmhd~sxlmh xbd kdclk v~jodss
Bj xj Eimh xbd Kl
 
Xbd~d l~d
xj
hieed~dmx olxdcj~ids je 
kl
im T_ gt~isv~thdmod7
sxlxtxj~y kl
"j~ kl`lhd ny
kdcisklxijm
)+ lmh
oj``jm kl
"kdclk v~imoivkds xblx drisx ixbjtx ndimc ~dhtodhxj ojhieiolxijm j~ xbd v~jodss je kdcixi`lximc kdclk ojmodvxs imxj l sxlxtxj~y e~l`dj~a)
<
 
<
Xbis cdxs ts imxj oiuios lmh cjud~m`dmx l nix+ ~dekdoximc xbd hisotssijm lnjtx xbd n~lmobds je cjud~m`dmx lmh sdvl~lxijm je vjd~s hisotssdh im xbd v~duijts kdoxt~d Xj~de~dsb jt~ ~dojkkdoxijm lmh ej~ st``lxiud vt~vjsds+ jt~ mlxijm o~dlxds ej~`lkiwdh klsxb~jtcb l cjud~m`dmxlk v~jodss nlsdh im xbd sdvl~lxijm je vjd~s hjox~imd7 xb~dd n~lobdsje cjud~m`dmx "kdcisklxiud+ drdotxiud+ gthioilk) xblx sbl~d xbd vjd~s je cjud~m`dmx xj loxls l obdoa-lmh-nlklmod jm jmd lmjxbd~
_xlxtxj~y kls
l~d o~dlxdh ny xbd kdcisklxt~d lmh v~dsdmxdh xj xbd drdotxiud ej~ i`vkd`dmxlxijm Sbdm l |tdsxijm l~isds ls xj xbd ulkihixyje xbjsd kls+ xbd gthioil~y bdkvs imxd~v~dx xbjsd |tdsxijms
Oj``jm kl
hjds mjx drisxxb~jtcb lm jeeioilk v~jodss je cjud~m`dmx "xbd~d bls nddm mj hdnlxd im xbd kdcisklxt~d+ xbd vlsslcd je l nikk+ j~ xbd v~dsdmx`dmx lmh sicmimc je l nikk ny xbd drdotxiud) ^lxbd~+oj``jm kl is bisxj~iolk im ixs ~jjxs lmh oj`ds e~j` loodvxdh ihdls xblx l~d xbdejtmhlxijm je jt~ kdclk v~imoivkds Lksj+ oj``jm kl is `jsx jexdm hdeimdh xb~jtcbimxd~v~dxlxijms ny xbd gthioil~y "n~jtcbx xj kied xb~jtcb gthioilk hdoisijms) @dlmbikd+sxlxtxj~y kl is hdeimdh ny xbd kdcisklxt~d "lmh jmky ki`ixdh ny gthioilk imxd~v~dxlxijm+stob ls ojmsxixtxijmlk ki`ixs jm blx l~dls l sxlxtxd olm ojud~ lmh bj ix `ly nd lvvkidh
 
Vlcd > je 3Xbd `lim hieed~dmods ndoj`d jnuijts lexd~ j~aimc ixb xbd `lxd~ilks l nix
_xlxtxj~ykl
is vlssdh xb~jtcb xbd kdcisklxt~d+ lmh "tstlkky) i`vkd`dmxdh ny xbd drdotxiud n~lmobDrl`vkds lx xbd edhd~lk kdudk imokthd xbd Okdlm Li~ Lox+ biob ls vlssdh ny xbd T_Ojmc~dss+ lmh sicmdh ny xbd V~dsihdmx xj ndoj`d kl
>
 
Oj``jm kl
+ ny ojmx~lsx+ is klxblx is
oj``jm
xj jt~ otkxt~d lmh x~lhixijms Ix bls nddm vlssdh hjm xb~jtcb xbd lcds_j`d ~ded~ xj
jt~ 
vl~xiotkl~ xyvd je kl ls
 Gthdj-Ob~isxilm
imektdmodh kl Sd loxtlkkyimbd~ixdh jt~ oj``jm kl e~j` Dmcklmh "`jsx je ix lmyly) Sd ikk nd hdlkimc ixbdrl`vkds je xbis xyvd je kl im etxt~d oblvxd~s lmh xbd~d is l cjjh hdlk je hisotssijm jmxbd hieed~dmx aimhs je kl im xbd
vjkktxijm
`jhtkd
 _xlxtxj~y us Oj``jm Kl V~imoivkds
Xbd hieed~dmods ndxddm
sxlxtxj~y kl
lmh
oj``jm kl
l~d i`vj~xlmx xj tmhd~sxlmhbdm xbimaimc lnjtx
dmui~jm`dmxlk kl
im ojmxdrx @jsx `lgj~ dmui~jm`dmxlk kls dikk nd hdlkimc ixb im xbis ojt~sd l~d o~dlxdh tmhd~ 
 sxlxtxj~y kl
 Drl`vkds imokthd xbdejkkjimc7
 
Xbd Mlxijmlk Dmui~jm`dmxlk Vjkioy Lox
 
 
Xbd Okdlm Li~ Lox
 
 
Xbd Okdlm Slxd~ Lox
 
 
Xbd Dmhlmcd~dh _vdoids Lox
 
 
Xbd ^dsjt~od Ojmsd~ulxijm lmh ^dojud~y Lox
 
 
Xbd Xjrio _tnsxlmods Ojmx~jk Lox
 
Xbdsd l~d lkk sxlxtxds xblx d~d vlssdh ny Ojmc~dss xj hdlk ixb svdoieio dmui~jm`dmxlkisstds xblx l~jsd jud~ xi`d lmh d~d stvvj~xdh ny vtnkio jvimijm+ xbts o~dlximc xbd
vjkioylx`jsvbd~d
vd~stlhimc Ojmc~dss xj xlad hi~dox loxijm Sbdm Ojmc~dss xjja loxijm xj vlss xbdsd kls+ ix hih sj tmhd~ ixs
Oj``d~od Okltsd
vjd~ je xbd T_ Ojmsxixtxijm ‟ xbd ‒sjt~od’ je vjd~ ej~ Ojmc~dss xj lox bdm ix vlssds sxlxtxds li`dh lx v~jxdoximc xbddmui~jm`dmx
Oj``jm kl
lksj imektdmods dmui~jm`dmxlk kl im l mt`nd~ je lys Ej~ drl`vkd+dmui~jm`dmxlk bl~`s `ly ‒x~iccd~’ l sxlxtxj~y uijklxijm ixbim jmd je xbd sxlxtxj~y klsim vl~xiotkl~ imsxlmods)
>
Xbd Okdlm Li~ Lox ojmxlims sxlxtxj~y cjlks je okdlmimc tv vlsx vjkktxijm lmh dmst~imcxbd li~ ~d`lims lx l od~xlim kdudk je ‒okdlmkimdss’ mj lmh imxj xbd etxt~d "amjm im xbdsxlxtxd ls Mlxijmlk L`nidmx Li~ \tlkixy _xlmhl~hs "MLL\_)) Xbd Lox cjds jm xj hduisdl `dxbjhjkjcy ej~ dsxlnkisbimc xbdsd sxlmhl~hs xb~jtcb xbd tsd je o~ixd~il vjkktxlmxs"`dlst~imc od~xlim xbimcs im xbd li~)+ lmh xbdm ~d|ti~imc vklms nd `lhd xj `ddx xbdsxlmhl~hs jm l sxlxd-ny-sxlxd kdudk "_xlxd I`vkd`dmxlxijm Vklms+ j~ _IVs) XbdDmui~jm`dmxlk V~jxdoxijm Lcdmoy "DVL) is
hdkdclxdh
xbd ltxbj~ixy tmhd~ xbd Okdlm Li~ Lox xj ol~~y jtx ixs sxlxtxj~y vt~vjsds lmh cjlks Ls lm
drdotxiud n~lmob
lcdmoy+ xbdDVL xbdm `lads ~tkds xj bdkv ix dmej~od xbd `lmhlxds je xbd Okdlm Li~ Lox lmh jxbd~isdi`vkd`dmx ixs sxlxtxj~y cjlks
 
Vlcd ? je 3ihdmxieidh lnjud+ ntx xbis is mjx lklys xbd olsd Bjdud~+ oj``jm kl `ly v~juihd l`dlms ny biob lm dmui~jm`dmxlk bl~` `ly nd ~dh~dssdh xb~jtcb jt~ kdclk sysxd`Sbdm d ~duid
vjkktxijm
+ d ikk ~duid njxb
v~iulxd
lmh
vtnkio
ej~`s je ~dctklxijmSbikd vtnkio ej~`s je vjkktxijm tstlkky imokthd sxlxtxj~y kl+ `lmy je xbd v~iulxd ej~`sje ~dctklxijm "kiad
mtislmod
) v~juihd ~d`dhids nlsdh jm xbd eloxs v~dsdmxdh im xbd olsdXbts+ im sj`d sixtlxijms+ oj``jm kl olm nd tsdh xj eikk im
 clvs
ndxddm sxlxtxj~y klsbdm v~jxdoximc xbd dmui~jm`dmx Dudm sj+ xbd~d l~d ki`ixlxijms xj xbd lvvkiolxijm je oj``jm kl v~imoivkds im lhulmoimc dmui~jm`dmxlk cjlks Jmd stob ki`ixlxijm is xblxoj``jm kl is tstlkky ejotsdh jm xbd svdoieio sixtlxijm+ ntx xbd loxijm hjds mjx lvvky
 cdmd~lkky
xj lm dmui~jm`dmxlk bl~` Xbts+ tmkiad `lmy je xbd dmui~jm`dmxlk sxlxtxds dikk nd drl`imimc+ oj``jm kl is tstlkky ki`ixdh xj olsd-ny-olsd gthioilk ~duid je bl~` Ls stob ixs lnikixy xj v~jxdox dmui~jm`dmxlk lssdxs is ki`ixdh
?
 Drl`vkds je oj``jm kl imokthd xbd ejkkjimc7
 
 Mtislmod "vjkktxijm+ klmh tsd)
 
Dlsd`dmxs "klmh tsd)
 
Ojudmlmxs "klmh tsd)
 
Lhud~sd Vjssdssijm "klmh tsd)
Xbd ^jkd je Gthioilk ^duid
^dolkk e~j` xbd v~duijts kdoxt~d jt~ 
bid~l~oby je kls
lmh bj xbis bid~l~oby o~dlxds lsdx je sxlmhl~hs ny biob kls l~d gthcdh "uistlkky ~do~dlxdh bd~d)7
?
Sd ikk sdd l okdl~ drl`vkd je xbdsd ki`ixlxijms im jt~ ~duid je 
mtislmod
ls l
oj``jmkl
"v~iulxd) `dlms je ~dctklximc sjt~ods je vjkktxijm

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