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Field Crops

Field Crops

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Published by Gary Bhullar
B.Sc Agriculture Notes Agronomy
B.Sc Agriculture Notes Agronomy

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Published by: Gary Bhullar on Jan 06, 2013
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09/04/2014

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Lecuture No: 1R I C E
(Oryza
TRADITIONAL VARIETIES & THEIR YIELD POTENTIAL-CONCEPT OF NEW PLANTTYPES (NPT’s)
Reasons for low yield of crops-1.2.Poor genetic yield potential of varieties of different crops.Under identical conditions genetic makeup of a variety is most significant factor indetermining yield.In recent years due to all round efforts of agricultural scientists it has been possible to cultivateHYVs of cereal crops which are often been termed as
“NEW PLANT TYPES”.
1.
IDEOTYPE :
refers to plant type in which morphological and physiological characteristics areideally suited to achieve high production potential and yield reliability.2.NPT’s are also called as
fertilizer responsive
varieties since these NPTs possess the trait of highresponsiveness towards heavy fertilizer applications. NPT’s are also termed as adaptable varieties means the physiological attributes of variety responsible for 3.a) b)c)d)Controlling the assimilation of absorbed N in plant body.Translocation and storage of photosynthetic products.Possessing more activity of roots under heavy application of fertilizers.Availability of resistance to lodging and diseases.But , the term NPT seems to be more appropriate and reasonable as it can very easily expressthe extent of improvement incorporated over the old type varieties.
 
The so called improved tall varieties cultivated by farmers generally grow very tall and possesslow yielding potentiality due to1.2.Weak and tall straw, susceptible to lodging under heavy fertilizer application.Inefficient leaf arrangement responsible for poor photosynthetic activity and less utilization of Solar energy.Many associated attributes like unsynchronized susceptibility towards the attack of pests anddiseases.3. NPT’s do not posses these defects and have been further improved to increase their productionefficiency where the morphological frame work has been genetically linked with other yieldcontributing characters. Recent developments in plant breeding made significant contribution towardsconcept of NPTs. The successful efforts of altering the morphological architecture of crop plants andmaking them suitable for cultivation under high fertility status of soils have opened a new VISTA indeveloping the varieties suitable for good agronomy.CHARACTERS OF NPT’s : They should be1.2.3.4.5.Morphologically be dwarf in growth habit with hard and stiff straw.Erect and dark green leaves remaining active for longer duration.Agronomically highly responsive to heavy fertilizer applicationPhysiologically be well equipped for more dry matter production and high yields.Adaptable under different agro climatic conditions and of short growing duration.Ex :NPT’s made in wheat, rice, jowar, bajra and maize.
Important features of such NPT’s of cereals in grain crops are :1. DWARFNESS :
 NPT’s are dwarf in nature due to
NORIN
in wheat and
DEE-GEE-WOO-GEN
in rice dwarf genes. NPT’s are short, stiff, not more than knee high but could take more fertilizers without lodging.
 
2. EFFICIANT LEAF ARRANGEMENT :
 NPTs are narrow, thick, erect and dark green color with optimum LAI composed of properly arrangedleaves, which remain active for longer period after flowering due to high sunlight interception they play important role in supporting grain formation resulting into more number of fertile grains per ear head.
3. SYNCHRONOUS TILLERING :
The growth and development of NPTs are more or less rhythmic i.e., high germination %, formationof all tillers at a time (during a specific period) and timely maturity of all the tillers. So, they havehighest synchronized coefficient as regards to the development and maturity of grains of differentears of a plant.Synchronization of tillering has been found to be dependent on other factors like moisture, proper secondary regrowth and adequate nutrient availability during the period.
4. LOW FLORET STERILITY :
Traditional tall varieties under heavy fertilizer application produce more sterile florets. NPT’s have avery low floret sterility % due to synchronized tillering into uniform ear head formation supported bylonger physiological activity if leaves at naturity.Low floret sterility an in NPT’s has also beenattributed due to increased activities of roots at grain formation stage.
5. SHORTER GROWTH DURATION :
 NPT’s have shorter duration than tall varieties. The optimum growth duration of a variety is moreimportant for scheduling its irrigation and manuring for obtaining higher yield. At High N applicationlonger growth duration and at low N application, short duration variety is preferred for obtaininghigher dry matter production as well as more grain production efficiency i.e., grain yield/unit area/unittime. These short duration varieties can fit very well in under high cropping intensity programmes likemultiple and relay cropping.
6. ADAPTABILITY TO DIFFERENT CROP SEASONS :
All most all NPT’s are photo insensitive and completely resistant to fluctuations in day length. Theycan be grown under all crop seasons provided inputs like fertilizers and irrigations are adequately madeavailable, so higher yields can be obtained. However, some of the NPTs are thermo-sensitive and areaffected by variation in temperature during season.

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