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Metabolic Enzymes

Metabolic Enzymes

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Published by BigBoosting
Metabolism
Metabolism

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: BigBoosting on Jan 06, 2013
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Metabolic Enzyme Regulation
General Notes
* before regulator means enzyme is phosphorylated by a kinase (*PKA = Phosphorylated by Protein Kinase A)
* after regulator means enzyme is dephosphorylated
Ca2+ regulates by associating with calmodulin....Ca2+-Calmodulin complex mediates effects.
Assume regulation by PKA is part of the Glucagon pathway.
ENZYME/PROTEIN ACTIVATION INHIBITION COMMENTS
GLYCOLYSISHexokinaseGlucose-6-PGlucokinaseGlucose-6-POnly in LivePFK-1AMPF-2,6-BPATPCitratePEPLow pHLow pH - such as inanaerob. glycolysis (lacticacid)PFK-2AMPPEPCitrate*PKAF-6-P <--> F-2,6-BP Not a GlycolyticEnzyme...Provides al-losteric effector Pyruvate KinaseF-1,6-BPATP*PKALDHLactateCori Cycle (liver)Lactate-->PyruvatePDHPyruvateCoA / NAD+ / ADPCa2+ / Mg2+Acetyl CoA NADHATPKNOW MECHANISMRequires TPP, LipoicAdic, FADRegulated by PDH Kinaseand PDH PhosphataseTCA CYLCLECitrate SynthaseCitrateIsocitrate DHADPCa2+ NADHa-Ketoglutarate DHCa2+NADH
 
ENZYME/PROTEIN ACTIVATION INHIBITION COMMENTS
Malate DHNADHGLUCONEOGENESISPyruvate CarboxylaseAcetyl CoARequires BiotinPEPCKInduced by GlucagonOAA --> PEP(OAA exits mitochondriaas either Asp or Malate)F-bis-PhospataseCitrateF-2,6-BPInduced by GlucagonG-6-PhosphataseOnly in LiveInduced by GlucagonDeficiency - von Gierke’sDiseaseGLYCOGEN SYTHESIS / DEGRADATIONGlycogen Synthase Ki-nase*PKBInactivation by InsulinPathway....leads to activa-tion of Glycogen SynthaseGlycogen SynthaseProtein Phosphatase**PKACa2+Glycogen PhosphorylaseKinase*PKAProtein Phosphatase*Glycogen Phosphorylase*Glycogen PhosphorylaseKinaseAMPCa2+Protein Phosphatase*FATTY ACID / TG SYNTHESISCitrate LyaseMalic EnzymeAcetyl CoA CarboxylaseCitratePhosphatase* (InsulinPathway)Palmitoyl CoA*AMP-activated ProteinKinase
 
ENZYME/PROTEIN ACTIVATION INHIBITION COMMENTS
FA SynthaseFatty Acyl CoA Syn-thetaseCPT-IMalonyl CoAGlycerol KinaseLPLApoCIIRecruited to apical surfaceof endothelial cells by In-sulinFATTY ACID OXIDATIONHSL*PKAFatty Acyl CoA Syn-thetaseFA --> FAcyl CoAATP-->AMP + 2P(i)(Loss of TWO high ener-gy phosphates.... remem- ber when calculating ener-gy yield)B-Oxidation Spiral En-zymes NADHFAD(2H)1)Acyl CoA DH2)Enoyl CoA Hydratase3)B-Hydroxy Acyl CoADH4)B-Keto ThiolaseKETONE BODY METABOLISMThiolase
Sequence of Events
Increased [FA] in cytosol[Malonyl CoA] decreasedIncreased import of FA intoMitochondriaIncreased B-Oxid.Increase ATPIncreased NADHBuild up of Acetyl CoAAcetyl CoA diverted fromTCA to Ketone BodiesLowering [FA]Reversal of <-------Previous
Basically, ketone bodiesare formed in the mito-chondrial matrix whenacetyl CoA is being pro-duced faster than it can beoxidized in the TCA cycle.So KBs can be correlatedwith high [FA]With restoration to normal[FA] ....KB synthesis stops because Acetyl CoA prefers to go to TCA cy-cle.HMG-CoA SythaseHMG-CoA LyaseB-Hydroxybutyrate DHSuccinyl CoA : AACoAtransferase

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