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capacitor switching

capacitor switching

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Published by asgharbarghandan
OVERVOLTAGES DUE TO CAPACITORS BANK SWITCHING
IN A 60kV SYSTEM
OVERVOLTAGES DUE TO CAPACITORS BANK SWITCHING
IN A 60kV SYSTEM

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Published by: asgharbarghandan on Jan 06, 2013
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05/09/2013

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OVERVOLTAGES DUE TO CAPACITORS BANK SWITCHINGIN A 60kV SYSTEM
José M. R. BaptistaDepartamento de EngenhariasUniversidade de Trás-os-Montes eAlto Douro, 5000 Vila Real,PORTUGALManuel R. CordeiroDepartamento de EngenhariasUniversidade de Trás-os-Montes eAlto Douro, 5000 Vila Real,PORTUGALA. Machado e MouraDepartamento de EngenhariaElectrotécnica e ComputadoresFaculdade de Engenharia do PortoPORTUGAL 
 Abstract
- This paper deals with the evaluation of electrical transients in power systems, inparticular for the switching surges. Theseovervoltages arise from the modifications of theelectric pattern of the network and can beexpressed by transitory regimes sufficientlycomplex. They can cause sufficiently highovervoltages in transmission and distributionlines.The switching surges that are studied result fromthe switching of a capacitors bank in a 60 kVsubstation of the Portuguese electrical system,located in North of the country near the city of Vila Real. This study concerns the instantaneousvalues of the voltages during the first cycles afterthe switching of the capacitors bank, in particularthe effects to the production units. This is done fordifferent topologies of the network. The simulationtool used was the EMTP/ATP (ElectromagneticTransient Program / Alternative TransientProgram).Keywords:
Overvoltages, transients, switchingsurges, EMTP/ATP.
I. INTRODUCTION
The area of electromagnetic transients involves anwide gamma of phenomena’s, originated by suddenvariations of voltage or current in electrical systems.These sudden voltage and current variations areoriginated by atmospheric discharges, system faultsor equipments operations. The transient study canlead to the specification of equipment protectiondevices of an electrical system and allows thedetermination of the causes that originated adisturbance in the system.The switching surges studied results from theswitching of a capacitors bank in a 60 kV substationof the Portuguese electrical system, located in Northof the country near the city of Vila Real. The systemis constituted by two substations, Valdigem (220kV/60 kV) and Telheira (60 kV/30 kV), a switchingstation (Soutelo) and three units of production,
twoof them hydroelectric (Covas do Barroso andAlvadia) and one of wind type (Pena Suar).
 The simulations, tacked into account the operation of different switches and topologies, with differentinitial conditions of the system. The study was carriedout with the important contribution of EDPDistribution - Electricity of Portugal. Thesesimulations were obtained to reproduce the realoperation conditions in which we can find the systemat the moment to perform the different types of actions.The study analyzes the instantaneous values of thevoltages during the first cycles after the capacitorbanks switch, in particular for the units of production.The simulation tool program EMTP/ATP was used(Electromagnetic Transient Program/AlternativeTransient Program).
II- DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM
The diagram of tablets and the unifilar scheme of thenetwork of 60 kV that will be studied are presented infigure 1 and 2 respectively. De seguida sãoapresentadas as principais características nominaisdos diferentes elementos que constituem o sistema.
2.1- Transformers
The power transformers taken in account to definethe topology of the system are the following ones:
Transformer T1
Function: Connection of the generator of theproducer Pena Suar to the 60 kV network Type: Three-phase TransformerVoltages: 63 kV / 15 kVConnection: Yd11Rated Power: 11 MVA
 
Transformer T2
Function: Connection of the generator of theproducer Alvadia to the 60 kV network Type: Three-phase TransformerVoltages: 60 kV / 6 kVConnection: Ynd11Rated Power: 10 MVA
Transformer T3
Function: Connection of the generator of theproducer Covas do Barroso to the 60 kV network Type: Three-phase TransformerVoltages: 60 kV / 6,6 kVConnection: YndRated Power: 8 MVA
Covas do BarrosoAlvadiaSoutelo
160 AL 21449 m225 AL 20473 m325 AL 13165 m
   3   2   5   A   L   2   2   5  m   2   3   5   A   L   2   0   2  m
TelheiraValdigem
2x325 AL 18079 m325 AL
   2  x   3   2   5   A   L   7   2   8   3  m
535 m
   1   9   5   A   L   5   5   6   9  m
325 AL983 m
Pena Suar
325 AL 359 m225 AL 5916 m
   2   3   5   A   L   1   5   9   0   4  m
Vidago
235 AL 12415 m
Chaves
 
Fig. 1. Network diagram
AlvariaCovasdoBarrosoValdigem
~~
G
2
G
3
T
2
T
3
S1S4S5
Soutelo
~
L
Telheira
S2
Pena Suar
~
G
1
T
1
S3
8 MVAR20 MVARLOAD
 
Fig. 2. Unifilar scheme of the studied system
 
2.2- Overhead lines
The overhead lines that had been considered in thestudy are the ones that compose the system of 60 kVand that connect the substation of Telheira andValdigem to the producers of Pena Suar, Alvadia andCovas do Barroso. Then, the diverse consideredbranches data is presented in table 1.Table 1 – Characteristics of the lines
Line
Length(Km)Section(mm2)Earth cablesection(mm2)Valdigem - Telheira 18,079 2*325Al 81,6Telheira - Soutelo 0,202 235AL 50,020,473 225AL 50,00,225 325AL 127,5Telheira - Pena Suar 7,283 2*325Al 81,60,535 325AL 81,65,569 195AL 81,60,843 325AL 127,5Soutelo - Alvadia 13,165 325AL 81,6Soutelo - C. Barroso 21,449 160AL 127,5
2.3- Generators
In the studied system exist three synchronousgenerators with the following rated features:
Generator G1
Type: Synchronous Generator with variable speedQuantity: 20Location: Aeolian Park of Pena SuarVoltage: 400 VRated speed: 18-38 m/sPower: 500 kW each
Generator G2
Type: SynchronousQuantity: 2Location: Hydroelectric producer of AlvadiaVoltage: 6 kVFrequency: 50 HzPower: 5 MVA each
Generator G3
Type: SynchronousQuantity: 2Location: Hydroelectric producer of Covas doBarrosoVoltage: 6,6 kVFrequency: 50 HzPower: 4 MVA each
2.4- Network equivalent
The influences that the remaining network exerts onthe 60 kV system was had in account by a network equivalent, connected to the Valdigem substation,which is an important node of the 220 kV power grid.We assumed that the Scc is very high compared withthe values obtained in the 60 kV power network. Inthese conditions the influence of the network equivalent is minimum.
2.5- Load
To represent the typical exploration conditions of thesystem it was considered one load connected to theTelheira substation with the following features:Rated Power: 40 MWPower factor: 0.8 (i)
2.6- Capacitor banks
 The capacitors banks, whose maneuvers are object of the present work, are placed in the substations of Valdigem and Telheira and have the followingfeatures:
Capacitor bank of Telheira
Power: 2x8 MVARVoltage: 60 kVConnection: Star
Capacitor bank of Valdigem
Power: 20 MVARVoltage: 60 kVConnection: Star
III- SYSTEM MODELING
 The EMTP/ATP program was used as a simulationtool, because it provides good results with greataccuracy. For a well performed system modeling itwas necessary to get a great amount of data, that hadbeen supplied by the company who explores theelectric network (EDP).
3.1- Transmission lines
 All the transmission lines that compose the system of 60 kV had been modeled by distributed parameters,

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