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PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SOCIAL FORESTRY

PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SOCIAL FORESTRY

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Published by Gary Bhullar
B.Sc Agriculture Notes, Forestry
B.Sc Agriculture Notes, Forestry

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Published by: Gary Bhullar on Jan 06, 2013
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05/21/2013

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Course
No. AGRO 302
Course Title: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF SOCIAL FORESTRY
 Lecture No: 1
Problems and Prospects of Indian Forestry :-INTRODUCTION:
Forestry is nature’s greatest bounty to mankind. With the depletionand degradation of natural resources by over use we are still lagging far behind in the process of development through modernization. Availability of resources is generally much below the world average and far below the average of developed countries.The country do not have enough land space and the productivity of the availablespace as far as the forests are concerned is also very low. Forests in India cover about22.8 %. Estimates of the area currently classified as forest land in India vary widely fromas high as 75 million hectares to as low as less than 40 million hectares. This represents 23and 12 per cent respectively totalland area of the country (327.7 M.ha) of the totalgeographical area admeasuring 74.72 m.ha as against 33 1/3 % enunciated in the Nationalforest policy 1988 to maintain the ecological balance of forest area in A.P. is 6.3 m.hacovering 23.2 % of the total geographical area (27.7 m.ha). as compared to the worldaverage of 1.6 ha per capita forest area, India has 0.11 ha per capita forest area mainly dueto the population increase. The country has lost about 43.4 m.ha of forest area during 1951-52 to 1982 – 83 @ 1.5 m.ha / annum, the main reasons being excessive biotic interference,removal of cut forest exceeding than the forests could produce, diversion of area for agriculture for river valley projects and industries etc. The productivity of Indian forest isalso very low 0.5 m/ha when compared to the world average of 2 m/ha because of over exploitation, overgrazing and excess maltreatment of forest area in the past. In India mostof the forests (95%) are owned and managed by the government in contrast to themanagement of forests by private sector in the European countries. Although forestsoccupy 22.8 % they are reported to contribute not much (1%) towards the Nationaleconomy when compared to agriculture (35%), many reasons have been attributed to the
 
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low revenue. Removal of large amount of forest produce by the local population in theform of rights and concessions as well as illicit removals being the main ones. Yet another  problem faced by the Indian forestry is the lack of proper investment in reforestation anafforestation programmes. ( the investments never exceeded 0.75% of the total plan outlayin the public sector).During the five year plans large scale development and rehabilitation works werelaunched in the forestry. With the introduction of conservation and forest management thework of demarcation of forest areas and working plan preparation was taken up. At presentas a consequence the area covered under working plans constitutes about 66 % of totalforest area.
Definition of Forest and Forestry :
The word forest is derived from Latin word ‘Foris’ means outside. Therefore forestsare areas covering practically all uncultivated and untended lands fairly extensive stretch oland covered with rather tall and dense tree growth.Forests are also defined as an area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce and is under woody vegetation for certain benefits which it provides.
Forestry :
Forestry stands for the theory and practice of constitution and management oforests and utilization of their products. It also stands for scientific management of forestsfor the continuous production of goods and services.
Branches of Forestry ;1.Silviculture :
Refers to certain aspects of theory and practice of raising forestcrops method of raising tree crops, their growth and aftercare upto the time of final harvesting.
Forestry soils :
Refers to the composition, physical and chemical charactersand behavior of the soil upon which forest is to be established
2.
 
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3.Dendrology :
Refers to description, classification and recognition of treespecies.
Forest menstruation :
Deals with the measurement of forest produce.
Forest Management :
Is the practical application of science, technique andeconomics to a forest estate for the production of certain desired results.
Forest utilization :
Branch of forestry dealing with the harvesting, marketing,conversion and putting the forest produce for a variety of uses like timber, fuel, pulp wood etc.
Wood technology :
Deals with the structure, physical, mechanical propertiesand behaviour of wood under varying conditions.
Forest policy and Administration :
Deals with the rules, regulations, laws and procedures that helps to conserve forests.
Forests protection :
Knowledge of the behaviour of the forest enemies viz.,Fire, Insects, Diseases, Wind, Animal and protection from them.
Agroforestry :
Deals with the integration of crops, forest plants or livestock simultaneously or sequentially on the same piece of land for sustainable landmanagement.
4.5.6.7.8.9.10.FOREST POLICIES:
Although the forest management in India has been on a sound footing since 1864,the condition of the forests continued to deteriorate through over exploitation. Efforts weremade to conserve the forest resources. The first effort in this direction was made byenunciating the
first forest policy of India on 19
th
October 1894
. The important featuresof this policy were :1.2.3.4.The state forests are to be administered for the benefit of the public.Forests on hill slopes may be protected.The requirements of people may be met from second class state forest.Whenever an effective demand for cultivable land exists, the needed landcan only be supplied from the forest area without habitation.

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