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Verbitsky - Twistor Spaces

Verbitsky - Twistor Spaces

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M. Verbitsky 
Holography principle for twistor spaces 
Holography principle for twistorspaces
Misha Verbitsky
1
verbit@verbit.ru
Abstract
Let
be a smooth rational curve on a complex manifold
. It is called
ample
if its normal bundle is positive:
N
=
O
(
i
k
),
i
k
>
0. We assume that
is covered bysmooth holomorphic deformations of 
. The basic exam-ple of such a manifold is a twistor space of a hyperk¨ahleror a 4-dimensional anti-selfdual Riemannian manifold
(not necessarily compact). We prove “a holography prin-ciplefor such a manifold: any meromorphic function de-fined in a neighbourhood
of 
can be extended to
,and any section of a holomorphic line bundle can be ex-tended from
to
. This is used to define the notionof a
Moishezon twistor space
: this is a twistor spaceadmitting a holomorphic embedding to a Moishezon va-riety
. We show that this property is local on
, andthe variety
is unique up to birational transform. Weprove that the twistor spaces of hyperk¨ahler manifoldsobtained by hyperk¨ahler reduction of flat quaternionic-Hermitian spaces by the action of reductive Lie groups(such as Nakajima’s quiver varieties) are always Moishe-zon.
Contents
1 Introduction2
1.1 Quasilines on complex manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21.2 Holography principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31.3 Moishezon twistor spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
2 Twistor spaces and ample rational curves5
2.1 Hyperk¨ahler manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
1
Partially supported by RFBR grants 12-01-00944-, 10-01-93113-NCNIL-a, and AGLaboratory NRI-HSE, RF government grant, ag. 11.G34.31.0023.
1
version 1.0, Nov. 25, 2012
 
M. Verbitsky 
Holography principle for twistor spaces 
2.2 Twistor spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72.3 Geometry of twistor spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82.4 Quasilines and ample curves in the twistor spaces . . . . . . . . . .8
3 Holography principle for manifolds with ample rational curves9
3.1 Holography principle for line bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93.2 The local holography principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103.3 Holography principle for meromorphic functions . . . . . . . . . . .11
4 Moishezon twistor spaces12
4.1 Vector bundles in a neighbourhood of an ample curve . . . . . . .124.2 Algebraic dimension of the field of meromorphic functions . . . . .144.3 Moishezon manifolds and ample rational curves . . . . . . . . . . .154.4 Moishezon twistor spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164.5 Twistor spaces and hyperk¨ahler reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
5 Appendix: Formal geometry and holography principle (by DmitryKaledin)21
1 Introduction
1.1 Quasilines on complex manifolds
The present paper was written as an attempt to answer the following ques-tion. Let
be a smooth rational curve in a complex manifold, withnormal bundle
N
isomorphic to
O
(1)
n
.
1
Is there a notion of a normal formfor a tubular neighbourhood of such a curve?When the normal bundle is
O
(
1)
n
instead of 
O
(1)
n
, a tubular neigh-bourhood of the curve has a normal form, obtained by blowing down thiscurve to a point, and taking a sufficiently small Stein neighbourhood of thispoint in the corresponding singular variety. When
N
=
O
(1)
n
, no such nor-mal form can be obtained. In fact, the birational type of the manifold canbe reconstructed from a complex analytic (and even formal) neighbourhoodof 
. This was known already to Hartshorne ([Har,Theorem 6.7]).However, one can associate with a quasiline an infinite-dimensional bundleˆ
O
(
) over
=
C
1
, withˆ
O
(
) = lim
O
/I 
n
O
,
1
Such rational curves are called
quasilines
, see e.g.[BBI].
2
version 1.0, Nov. 25, 2012
 
M. Verbitsky 
Holography principle for twistor spaces 
where
is an ideal sheaf of 
. This bundle is called
a formal completionof 
at
.It is not hard to observe that the space of sections
0
(
S,
ˆ
O
(
)) is finite-dimensional, and, moreover,
0
(
S,
ˆ
O
(
)
O
S
O
(
i
)) is finite-dimensional foreach
i
(Proposition 4.1). For a long time, we expected that the algebra
A
:=
i
0
(
S,
ˆ
O
(
)
O
S
O
(
i
)) would provide a sort of an algebraic “normalform” of 
in
, in such a way that the algebraic structure onˆ
O
(
) canbe reconstructed from this ring.In this paper, we show that this approach works when
is a Moishezonmanifold, and
can be reconstructed from the ring
A
, up to birationalisomorphism (Subsection4.3;this is not very surprising due to the above-mentioned theorem of Hartshorne, [Har,Theorem 6.7]).For non-Moishezon
, such as a twistor space of a simply connected,compact hyperk¨ahler manifold, this conjecture is spectacularly wrong. Inthis case,
A
=
i
0
(
C
1
,
O
(
i
)), and this ring has no information about
whatsoever (Proposition 2.13).
1.2 Holography principle
The main technical tool of the present paper is the following theorem, called
the holography principle
. Recall that
an ample rational curve
on acomplex variety
is a smooth curve
=
C
1
such that the normalbundle
N
is decomposed as
N
=
k
O
(
i
k
), with all
i
k
>
0.
Theorem 1.1:
Let
be an ample curve in a simply connected complexmanifold, and
its connected neighbourhood. Suppose that
is coveredby smooth complex-analytic deformations of 
. Then
(i)
For any holomorphic vector bundle
B
on
, the restriction map
0
(
M,B
)
0
(
U,B
)is an isomorphism.
(ii)
Let Mer(
), Mer(
) be the fields of meromorphic functions on
and
. Then the restriction map Mer(
)
Mer(
) is an isomorphism.
Proof:
For line bundles,Theorem 1.1(i) is implied byTheorem 3.1. For general vector bundles, an elegant argument is given by D. Kaledin in the3
version 1.0, Nov. 25, 2012

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