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Tensile and Imact-Lab3 Theory

Tensile and Imact-Lab3 Theory



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Published by: kostas.sierros9374 on Feb 09, 2009
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MAE244 Tensile Test and Impact Test Lab 3-1
Tensile Test and Impact
Material Characterization
It is known from experience that for a given load different materials deform by differentamounts. The purpose of tests such as the uniaxial tensile test is to provide information on this behavior of the material.Consider the deformation of three rods made of identical material but having differentdimensions. For each bar, the load increases gradually, leading to the change in length (
L). For The corresponding P~
L plots will be represented by either (b) or (c). The P~
L curves isdependent upon the dimension of the specimen.
(a) (b) (c)Linear  Nonlinear 
Figure 1: Typical
 P vs
plots of linear and nonlinear materials under tensile loading.
 In order to evaluate the intrinsic properties of materials, the dimension effect should beeliminated. By re-plotting the data with the load divided by the area (P/A) and the elongationdivided by the original length (
L/L), the test results for the three bars can be represented by asingle curve.
Figure 2: Typical
 P/A vs
plots of linear and nonlinear materials under tensile loading
.Being able to represent data from different specimens by a single curve greatly simplifies the problem of determining the load-deformation behavior of materials. That is, it is necessary totest only one specimen and present the data in the form of (P/A) versus (
L/L).The quantities (P/A) and (
L/L) are called the stress and strain respectively i.e.stress:
 P  A
MAE244 Tensile Test and Impact Test Lab 3-1
and both are of vital importance in discussing the mechanics of deformable bodies. They arewhat are called local measures, i.e. they can be directly associated with a group of molecules,and this is why they were successful in combining the data from three different specimens ontoone curve.
Linear Elasticity
If the material is linear elastic, then the slope of the stress-strain curve is a constant, i.e.
σ  ε 
constant = E or 
(1)E is called the Young's modulus of the material, and relation (1) is usually referred to as theuniaxial
 Hooke's Law 
.During the uniaxial tensile test, it is found that the specimen exhibits a lateral contraction.Further, for linear elastic materials there is a definite ratio between the lateral (
) andlongitudinal (
) strains, i.e.
constant = -
(2)The constant v is referred to as Poisson's ratio.Some typical values for E and v are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Typical values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio
. MaterialE(psi)E(N/m2)
Tungsten Carbide80 x 106500 x 1090.35Steel30 x 106200 x 1090.28Aluminum10 x 10670 x 1090.33Wood1 x 1067 x 109-Epoxy80 x 103600 x 1060.4Rubber4003 x 1060.5These are only representative values and a handbook on material properties should be consultedif an accurate value for a particular type of material is required. Material properties such as theseexist for advanced materials such as laminated composites, but the properties depend on thegeometry of the composite fibers and fiber and matrix materials.
MAE244 Tensile Test and Impact Test Lab 3-1
Tensile Test
Usually in the performance of a tensile test, load and extension data are collected. When theseare put on the reduced stress-strain plots they may look like one of the following
Figure 3: Schematic map of 
plot of linear and nonlinear multi-grain materials
. To be able to describe these curves a number of terms have been introduced. These terms do notalways have an exact number associated with them but they are useful in aiding a discussion.
 Proportionality Limit 
: Last point where stress and strain are linearly related. (Point a.)
 Elastic Limit 
: Last point from which after removal of load, there is no permanent strain.(Point b.)
Yield Point 
: Technically the same as the elastic limit but usually associated with the grossonset of permanent strain. Many materials do not exhibit a clearly definedyield point and so this point is often taken to correspond to a certain offsetof strain. Point c is the yield point for 0.2% (0.002 strain) offset.
Yield Strength
: Stress at yield point,
Tensile Strength
: Sometimes called the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and is themaximum stress reached during the loading. Point d.
Material Toughness
: The area under the elastic and the plastic portion of the stress-straincurve. It is the total energy required to stress the material to the point of fracture.

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