all of the land development stakeholders together. Its size is of such magnitude that Terhorst (2005) writes about a “growth co-
alition”, a notion used by many American scientists to dene a
territorially based coalition that includes local public actors and business actors to promote urban growth:Several decades ago, the growth coalition faced an “anti-growth”group, consisting of municipalities and local associations, beforeurban growth became the key issue among stakeholders. As Ter-horst (2005) explains, the pro-growth group today brings togeth-er stakeholders in several circles: a central “sustainable” groupconsisting of those that are the most concerned with airport de-velopment (airport authority, ministries). Land development ac-tors, in the second circle, are also part of the coalition.
A Coherent Public-Private Development
Strengthened by the growth coalition, the airport region develop-
ment process is more importantly coordinated by several specic
bodies.First, in the land planning process, two forums help local gov-ernments and the airport authority coordinate their policies, and
dene land development guidelines. The province of North-Hol
-land, strategic land planning actor in the Netherlands (it publish-es the referent strategic plan), sits on two forums as a strategiccoordination body:
An administration forum, the so-called BestuursforumSchiphol (BFS), consists of the main urban-planning actors’ platform in the airport region, chaired by the Province, alongwith municipalities of Amsterdam and Haarlemmermeer as itsmembers.
On a larger scale, an administrative coordination group, theso-called Bestuurlijke Regiegroep Schiphol (BRS), also includesneighboring regions and municipalities that have interests in theairport’s airside’s further development.Secondly, the public-private actors system is coordinated by twostrategic bodies during the entire development implementation(building, management) :
Schiphol Area Development Company (SADC), set up by theBFS’ actors, has a ma- jor role in coordinat-ing public guidelinesand private interestsin a coherent land-development process.Functioning as aneconomic develop-ment agency, it is alsoauthorized to build,develop and manageland; which it doesin about ten projectsaround the airport.
Amsterdam Air- port Area is a public- private associationwhose diverse mem- bers range from mu-nicipalities and portauthorities to develop-ment funds. It handlesmarketing and com-munication on a larger
dened “airport city” scale.
In conclusion, coordination is ensured during the land develop-ment process, from strategy development to land developmentimplementation. This coherent development framework has ledto a substantial growth in the Schiphol region, from logistics and business areas to mixed urban projects. In 2007, AAA supervisedand carried out the international marketing activities of over 30territories located between the port of Amsterdam and the southof the municipality of Haarlemmermeer (in which Schiphol islocated).
Orly Region: from Bottom-up to Top-down Development
A Recent Growth Coalition Based on Local Stakeholders
In the early 2000s, local authorities started to focus on the devel-opment opportunities around Orly airport. Using the favorable
opinions of satised market actors settled around the airport as
an argument, two main stakeholders, the Val-de-Marne Départe-ment (province) and its economic development agency (Agencede Développement du Val-de-Marne) emphasized the regionalimportance of Orly as a business area.
In 2005, a conference was held for the rst time, and has been
held annually ever since: the “assises d’Orly”. It was initiallyaimed at the creation of a broad vision of regional developmentaround the airport. The conference attracted private developers, but also local governments and the airport authority communica-tion board. This pro-growth group created a common vision of land and economic development around Orly. At the end of thesecond “assises” in 2006, a document with strategic guidelineswas drawn up (Départements du Val de Marne et de l’Essonne,2006).This marked a change in the planning stakeholders’ point of
views. Three years after the rst conference, the Parisian Cham
- ber of Commerce (CCIP, 2006) and Ile-de-France region incor- porated Orly as a major regional hub into their studies and intothe major regional-planning document (Schéma Directeur Ré-gional d’Ile-de-France (SDRIF)). All in all, land planning andmarket actors managed to enlarge the growth coalition, which,until then, almost en-tirely focused on air issues - by introduc-ing business develop-ment guidelines.
Government, not Governance
At the beginning of 2007, developmentin the Orly-Rungisterritory became soimportant that it waseventually integratedinto two national projects, which wereoriginally limited tosmaller territories.These special proj-ects are carried out by the French land planning ministry interritories that haveoutstanding devel-
Economic and urban development on Île-de-France. Source: Institut d’Aménage-ment et d’Urbanisme de la Région Ile de France