Film blowing: Overview
The majority of polymer films are manufacturedby film blowing (blown film extrusion). Asingle screw extruder is used to melt thepolymer and pump it into a tubular die, asshown in cross-section at right. Air is blowninto the center of the extruded tube and causes itto expand in the radial direction. Extension of the melt in both the radial and down-streamdirection stops at the freeze line (frost line) dueto crystallization of the melt. The nip rollscollect the film, as well as sealing the top of thebubble to maintain the air pressure inside. Thisprocess is used extensively withpolyethylene
J.F. Agassant, P. Avenas, J.Ph. Sergent, P.J. Carreau,
Polymer Processing Principles and Modeling
, Hanser, New York (1986). ISBN 0-19-520864-1, pages 252-262.
Single screw extrusion is one of the coreoperations in polymer processing and is also a keycomponent in many other processing operations.The foremost goal of a single screw extrusionprocess is to build pressure in a polymer melt sothat it can be extruded through a die or injectedinto a mold. Most machines are plasticating: theybring in solids in pellet or powder form and meltthem as well as building pressure.
Twin Screw Extrusion: Technology and Principles
, Hanser Publishers, New York (1991) ISBN3446156917.