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Polymer Processing

Polymer Processing

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Published by Aldi Renaldha

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Published by: Aldi Renaldha on Jan 08, 2013
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02/06/2013

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 Injection molding: Overview
 
Injection molding is used extensively for themanufacture of polymeric items. Areciprocating/rotating screw both melts polymerpellets and provides the pressure required toquickly inject the melt into a cold mold. Thepolymer cools in the mold and the part is ejected.Injection molding machines are sized primarily bythe force available in the mold clamping unit;ranging from 20 tons in laboratory machines toover 5000 tons in large commercial machines.
Process Schematic
 
 References
 
Gerd Potsch,
Injection Molding: An Introduction
, Hanser Publishers, New York (1995) ISBN 1-569-90193-7.
 
 Reaction injection molding:
Reaction injection molding (RIM) is a processingtechnique for the formation of polymer parts bydirect polymerization in the mold through a mixingactivated reaction. A simplified process schematic isshown at right. Two reactive monomeric liquids,designated in the figure as A and B, are mixedtogether by impingement and injected into the mold.In the mold, polymerization and usually phaseseparation occur, the part solidifies, and is thenejected. Primary uses for RIM products includeautomotive parts, business machine housings, andfurniture.
Process Schematic
 
 References
 
C.W. Macosko,
RIM, Fundamentals of Reaction Injection Molding
, Hanser Publishers, New York (1989)ISBN 3-446-15196-6.
 
Film blowing: Overview
 
The majority of polymer films are manufacturedby film blowing (blown film extrusion). Asingle screw extruder is used to melt thepolymer and pump it into a tubular die, asshown in cross-section at right. Air is blowninto the center of the extruded tube and causes itto expand in the radial direction. Extension of the melt in both the radial and down-streamdirection stops at the freeze line (frost line) dueto crystallization of the melt. The nip rollscollect the film, as well as sealing the top of thebubble to maintain the air pressure inside. Thisprocess is used extensively withpolyethylene 
 
andpolypropylene.
 
Process Schematic
 
 References
 
J.F. Agassant, P. Avenas, J.Ph. Sergent, P.J. Carreau,
Polymer Processing Principles and Modeling
, Hanser, New York (1986). ISBN 0-19-520864-1, pages 252-262.
 Extrusion: Overview
 
Single screw extrusion is one of the coreoperations in polymer processing and is also a keycomponent in many other processing operations.The foremost goal of a single screw extrusionprocess is to build pressure in a polymer melt sothat it can be extruded through a die or injectedinto a mold. Most machines are plasticating: theybring in solids in pellet or powder form and meltthem as well as building pressure.
Process Schematic
 
 References
 
J.L. White,
Twin Screw Extrusion: Technology and Principles
, Hanser Publishers, New York (1991) ISBN3446156917.

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