1. Despite progress in women's education,men still earn about 70%of allPh.D.degreesin the United
2.When psychological research looks at women ofcolor, the normative European-Americanfemale
groupoften servesas the standard of comparison.
3.Whenwomenfrom some ethnicgroups become feminist activists,the men intheirethniccommunity
often tellthem that this activism is a threat to ethnic unity.
4. Chicana feminismhas been activein the United States since the early 1970s.
5.One branch of the men's movement,called the "profeminists,"argues that rigid genderrolescan
harm menaswell as women.
6. One ofthe basic beliefs of the Promise Keepers-and others who supportthe religious approachto
the men's movement-is that men must take back their roles as familyleaders and women should be
7.According to qualitative research,students say that their women's studies courses have increased
theirfeminist identity; however,quantitative research shows that women's studies courses do not
have a significant effect.
8.The firstwaveof the North American feminist movement began in the 1920s,asaresult ofwomen
winningtheright to vote.
9.Thenumber of feminist groups in North Americahas actuallydecreasedduringthe past decade.
_ __ 10. Bythe year2005, women had been heads of state inonly12 countries,andwomen's studies courses
weretaughtonlyinNorthAmerica and Europe.
You have now read14chapters about thelives of females, from their prenatal
developmentthrough old age. A youtryto gaina perspective on all the diverse
statistics, research studies, theories, and personaltestimonies,you may focus
on one central question: Have women's lives improved in recent years? To
answerthis question,let's consider some representative information-both
uplifting anddepressing-onthelives of women in the current era:
•Womennow receive 45%of all Ph.D. degrees in the United States ("The
Multan, Pakistan, a tribalcouncilwas distressed that a young boy had
beenwalking with a womanfromahigher-caste family.To punish the
boy's "crime," the council orderedthat his older
Mukhtaran Bibi, besentencedto gangrape. Four men raped herrepeatedly. Tradition demanded
that she commit suicide. However, she acceptedthe $8,300 awardedto her
by the government andusedthe moneyto found a schoolfor girls. The
Canadiangovernment, the readers of the
New York Times,
and other donorshave provided fundsthatshe planstouse for alibrary, a playground, and a
women's f und-raising pro ject(Kristof, 2005; Moreau
Hussain, 2005).• The United Nations Convention onthe Elimination of All Formsof
Discrimination AgainstWomen (CEDAW) has been ratified bymore
than 170 countries throughout the world.The signers include Iraq and
Afghanistan-two countries not known for policies consistent with