and the collision and collapseof piled-up carried load. Inorder to prevent those threats, an innovative triplet of double-link arm is proposed to be equipped withthe OHT unit in our work. Compared with the conven-tional OHT, the proposed OHT unit possesses a certaindegree of superior properties, such as eligibility for hightraveling speed, adjustable stiﬀness and capability of anti-sway and anti-uncertainty.The singular perturbation theory is usually employedto deal with the plant with the presence of parasiticparameters. By a singular perturbation approach, thesystem model can be split into two lower-order subsys-tems in two time scales (Kokotovic et al., 1987). Forexample, the quarter-car suspension system is usuallyanalyzed by a two-time-scale model (Salman et al.,1988).Inaddition,theelectricpowersystemcanbesome-how converted to a generator voltage regulator by a sin-gular perturbation method (Vournas et al., 1995). As toautomation, ﬂexible robot links have often been studiedbyaperturbationtechnique(GeandCheng,2005;KhalilandKokotovic1979;LaddeandSiljak,1983;PrljacaandGajic, 2008; Rasmussen and Alleyne, 2004; Shtessel andShkolnikov,2003;Shtesseletal.,2002;Spong,1989;Tsaiet al., 2007).Although the system dynamics of the OHT system ishighly nonlinear and of a high-order, by a singular per-turbation technique, the system model can be split intothree subsystems in three time scales, i.e., slow-modesubsystem, intermediate-mode subsystem and fast-mode subsystem. The order-reduced models are simpli-ﬁed but the characteristics of the fast-mode subsystemare preserved to some extent so that the controllersynthesis becomes simpler. A composite controller, com-posed of the Sliding Mode Control (SMC) loop andinput shaping technique, is proposed in this paper. TheSMC is synthesized, on the basis of a slow-time-scalemodel, to account for the system parameters uncertain-ties and to regulate the position of carried load. On theother hand, the input shaping technique is developed, onthebasisoftheintermediate-time-scalemodel,tosuppressthe residual vibration. That is, the anti-sway controller isimplemented by the input shaping technique which pro-videsasequenceofimpulseinappropriateamplitudesandtimeepoch.Finally,theeﬃcacyoftheproposalcompositecontrol strategy is examined and veriﬁed by computersimulations.
Innovative design and dynamicanalysis of OHT
The proposed OHT mainly consists of a trolley, a set of DC (Direct Current) motors, three rigid links and threeﬂexible links, shown in Figure 1. The OHT is equippedwith a triplet of double-link arms to carry the load. Themotions of double-link arms are controlled by the set of DC motors. Evidently, the OHT is a mechatronicsystem composed by an electric subsystem and amechanical subsystem. Both the dynamics of electricand mechanical subsystems are modeled to describeprecisely the dynamics of the OHT. At last, theMultiple-time-scale (MTS) property is applied fororder-reduction and controller synthesis.
2.1. Description of OHT
The schematic diagram of the proposed overhead cranesystem, hereafter named as OHT, is depicted inFigure 1. The mass of cargo to be carried forward/back-ward between two stations in a factory is denoted as
.Instead of passive cables equipped conventionally, atriplet of double-link arms is facilitated with the OHTto carry the load. Each double-link arm is composedof two links, which are connected by pin-joint, andnamed as a manipulator in this paper. The upper linkof each arm,
, is assumed rigid and controlled by aDC motor so that each rigid link can actively move inplanar fashion. It is noted that the three rigid linkstogether can dominate any 3-dimensional movementof the carried load within the speciﬁed boundary con-structed by the three manipulators. The lower link of each arm,
, is ﬂexible and controlled by the associatedrigid link so that the load,
, can be prevented fromany potential shock, unexpected tilting or high-fre-quency excitation, especially if it is considerably fragile.The
drive motor is attached and ﬁxed to the OHTat location
, speciﬁed by the actuator coordinate,
Schematic diagram of the OHT system.
Journal of Vibration and Control 18(8)
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