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Journal ofVibration and Control
 http://jvc.sagepub.com/content/18/8/1081The online version of this article can be foundat:DOI: 10.1177/10775463114107622012 18: 1081 originally published online 21 September 2011
Journal of Vibration and Control 
Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Din-Chang Chen, Li-Wen Shih and Chao-Wen Chiang
techniqueModel reduction and composite control for overhead hoist transport system by singular perturbation
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Journal of Vibration and Control 
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at Bibliotheques de l'Universite Lumiere Lyon 2 on November 4, 2012 jvc.sagepub.comDownloaded from 
Model reduction and composite controlfor overhead hoist transport systemby singular perturbation technique
Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Din-Chang Chen, Li-Wen Shih andChao-Wen Chiang
An innovative Overhead Hoist Transport (OHT) system is proposed and analyzed to transport fragile semi-finishedproducts in factories. A triplet of double-link arm is used to carry the load, in replacement of the cables used conven-tionally. Unlike conventional OHT, the proposed OHTexhibits superior capability for high-speed transportation, flexiblestiffness and is able to account for the inherent auto-sway characteristics and parameters uncertainties of the OHTsystem. The three-time-scale plant model of the OHT system, including the drive motors, flexible links and rigid links, isdeveloped. By singular perturbation order-reduction technique, the highly nonlinear high-order dynamics of the OHTsystem can be modeled as a low-order linearized plant so that the synthesis of the feedback controller becomes simpler.The composite control, composed of sliding mode control and input shaping technique, is proposed. The sliding modecontrol is, as usual, employed to account for the system parameters uncertainties. On the other hand, to suppressthe residual vibration, i.e., auto-swaying, the input shaping technique is utilized by implementation of a finite-lengthsequence of impulses in the appropriate amplitude and time epoch. Finally, the efficacy of the proposal composite controlstrategy is examined and verified by intensive computer simulations.
Composite control, multiple-time-scale system, overhead hoist transport
Received: 13 September 2009; accepted: 9 April 2011
1. Introduction
The semiconductor fabrication is one of the most signif-icant industries. Highly complicated production facilitieswith various processes are involved. The semi-finishedproducts have to be transported backwards/forwardsamong stations in the factory. For example, a stack of 300mm wafers is transported approximately from 8 to10 miles during the processing and typically about 250fabrication procedures have to be undertaken beforefinished goods are completed (Agrawal and Heragu,2006). It is evident that the transport system in semicon-ductor industries is one of the crucial factors for thequality of the products. Besides, due to the high cost of wafers, manual transport is not practicable at all suchthatahighlyreliablewafertransportsystemisintensivelyrequired.However,thecommercially-availableOverheadHoistTransport(OHT)unit,whichiscurrentlyemployedin industries, is not equipped with an active suspensioncontroller so that fragile material (e.g., wafers) suffersfrom potential damage due to collision or collapse(Chung and Jang, 2007; Kuo, 2002; Liao and Wang,2006).In general, the conventional OHT is a type of pendu-lum so that it is inherently less eligible for high speedtransportation with auto-swaying (Jerman and Kramar,2008; Jerman et al., 2004). That is, though it is easy touse, there are a few inherent drawbacks, such as swaying
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University,Taiwan
Corresponding author:
Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NationalCheng Kung University, Tainan City 70101, TaiwanEmail: nortren@mail.ncku.edu.tw
 Journal of Vibration and Control18(8) 1081–1095
The Author(s) 2011Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.navDOI: 10.1177/1077546311410762 jvc.sagepub.com
 at Bibliotheques de l'Universite Lumiere Lyon 2 on November 4, 2012 jvc.sagepub.comDownloaded from 
and the collision and collapseof piled-up carried load. Inorder to prevent those threats, an innovative triplet of double-link arm is proposed to be equipped withthe OHT unit in our work. Compared with the conven-tional OHT, the proposed OHT unit possesses a certaindegree of superior properties, such as eligibility for hightraveling speed, adjustable stiffness and capability of anti-sway and anti-uncertainty.The singular perturbation theory is usually employedto deal with the plant with the presence of parasiticparameters. By a singular perturbation approach, thesystem model can be split into two lower-order subsys-tems in two time scales (Kokotovic et al., 1987). Forexample, the quarter-car suspension system is usuallyanalyzed by a two-time-scale model (Salman et al.,1988).Inaddition,theelectricpowersystemcanbesome-how converted to a generator voltage regulator by a sin-gular perturbation method (Vournas et al., 1995). As toautomation, flexible robot links have often been studiedbyaperturbationtechnique(GeandCheng,2005;KhalilandKokotovic1979;LaddeandSiljak,1983;PrljacaandGajic, 2008; Rasmussen and Alleyne, 2004; Shtessel andShkolnikov,2003;Shtesseletal.,2002;Spong,1989;Tsaiet al., 2007).Although the system dynamics of the OHT system ishighly nonlinear and of a high-order, by a singular per-turbation technique, the system model can be split intothree subsystems in three time scales, i.e., slow-modesubsystem, intermediate-mode subsystem and fast-mode subsystem. The order-reduced models are simpli-fied but the characteristics of the fast-mode subsystemare preserved to some extent so that the controllersynthesis becomes simpler. A composite controller, com-posed of the Sliding Mode Control (SMC) loop andinput shaping technique, is proposed in this paper. TheSMC is synthesized, on the basis of a slow-time-scalemodel, to account for the system parameters uncertain-ties and to regulate the position of carried load. On theother hand, the input shaping technique is developed, onthebasisoftheintermediate-time-scalemodel,tosuppressthe residual vibration. That is, the anti-sway controller isimplemented by the input shaping technique which pro-videsasequenceofimpulseinappropriateamplitudesandtimeepoch.Finally,theefficacyoftheproposalcompositecontrol strategy is examined and verified by computersimulations.
Innovative design and dynamicanalysis of OHT
The proposed OHT mainly consists of a trolley, a set of DC (Direct Current) motors, three rigid links and threeflexible links, shown in Figure 1. The OHT is equippedwith a triplet of double-link arms to carry the load. Themotions of double-link arms are controlled by the set of DC motors. Evidently, the OHT is a mechatronicsystem composed by an electric subsystem and amechanical subsystem. Both the dynamics of electricand mechanical subsystems are modeled to describeprecisely the dynamics of the OHT. At last, theMultiple-time-scale (MTS) property is applied fororder-reduction and controller synthesis.
2.1. Description of OHT 
The schematic diagram of the proposed overhead cranesystem, hereafter named as OHT, is depicted inFigure 1. The mass of cargo to be carried forward/back-ward between two stations in a factory is denoted as
.Instead of passive cables equipped conventionally, atriplet of double-link arms is facilitated with the OHTto carry the load. Each double-link arm is composedof two links, which are connected by pin-joint, andnamed as a manipulator in this paper. The upper linkof each arm,
, is assumed rigid and controlled by aDC motor so that each rigid link can actively move inplanar fashion. It is noted that the three rigid linkstogether can dominate any 3-dimensional movementof the carried load within the specified boundary con-structed by the three manipulators. The lower link of each arm,
, is flexible and controlled by the associatedrigid link so that the load,
, can be prevented fromany potential shock, unexpected tilting or high-fre-quency excitation, especially if it is considerably fragile.The
drive motor is attached and fixed to the OHTat location
, specified by the actuator coordinate,
Figure 1.
Schematic diagram of the OHT system.
Journal of Vibration and Control 18(8)
 at Bibliotheques de l'Universite Lumiere Lyon 2 on November 4, 2012 jvc.sagepub.comDownloaded from 

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