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general information on indian railways

general information on indian railways

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Published by Azizur Rahman
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Indian RailwaysIndian Railways
is an Indian state-owned enterprise, owned and operated by the government of India throughthe Ministry of Railways. It is one of the world's largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km (71,000 mi) of track over a route of 65,000 km (40,000 mi) and 7,500 stations. IR carries about 7,500 million passengersannually or more than 20 million passengers daily (more than a half of which are suburban passengers) and 2.8million tons of freight daily. In 2011-2012 Indian Railways earned 104,278.79 crores which consists of 69,675.97 crore from freight and 28,645.52 crore from passengers tickets.
 
Railways were first introduced to India in 1853 from Bombay to Thane. In 1951 the systems were nationalizedas one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both longdistance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad meter and narrow gauges. It alsoowns locomotive and coach production facilities at several places in India and are assigned codes identifyingtheir gauge, kind of power and type of operation. Their operation covers twenty four states and three unionterritories and also provides limited international services to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.Indian Railways is the world's fourth largest commercial or utility employer, by number of employees, withover 1.4 million employees. As for rolling stock, IR holds over 229,381 Freight Wagons, 59,713 PassengerCoaches and 9,213 Locomotives. The trains have a 5 digit numbering system as the Indian Railways runs about10,000 trains daily. As of 31 March 2012, 22,224 km (13,809 mi) (34%) of the total 65,000 km (40,000 mi) kmroute length was electrified. Since 1960, almost all electrified sections on IR uses 25,000 Volt AC tractionthrough overhead catenary delivery.In south the first line was opened on Ist July, 1856 by the Madras Railway Company. It ran between VyasarpadiJeeva Nilayam (Veyasarpandy) and Walajah Road (Arcot), a distance of 63 miles. In the North a length of 119miles of line was laid from Allahabad to Kanpur on 3rd March 1859. The first section from Hathras Road toMathura Cantonment was opened to traffic on 19th October, 1875.
Organizational chart
 
 
 Minister of Railways: Shri Pawan kumar BansalMinister of State Railways: K.J. Surya Prakash ReddyMinister of State Railways: Adhir Rajan ChowdhuryChairman Railway: Vinay MittalFinancial Commissioner : Vijaya Kanth
Railway zones
Indian Railways is divided into several zones, which are further sub-divided into divisions. The number of zonesin Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952 and sixteen in 2003. Each zonal railway ismade up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eightdivisions.Each of the sixteen zones is headed by a General Manager (GM) who reports directly to the Railway Board. Thezones are further divided into divisions under the control of Divisional Railway Managers (DRM). The divisionalofficers of engineering, mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel, operating,commercial and safety branches report to the respective Divisional Manager and are in charge of operationand maintenance of assets. Further down the hierarchy tree are the Station Masters who control individualstations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations' administration.Central (Mumbai), East Central (Hajipur, Bihar), East coast (Bhupaneshwar, orissa), Eastern (Kolkatta), NorthCentral (Allahabad, UP), North Eastern (Gorakhpur), North Western (Jaipur), North Easter Frontier (Guwahati),Northern (Delhi), South Central (Secunderabad), South East Central (Bilaspur), South Eastern( Kolkata), SouthWestern (Hubli), Southern (Chennai), Western Central (Jabalpur, MP), Western (Mumbai), Metro Railway(Kolkata).
Production Units
Indian Railways manufactures much of its rolling stock and heavy engineering components at its sixmanufacturing plants, called Production Units, which are managed directly by the Ministry. Popular rollingstock builders such as CLW and DLW for electric and diesel locomotives; ICF and RCF for passenger coaches areProduction Units of Indian Railways. Over the years, Indian Railways has not only achieved self-sufficiency inproduction of rolling stock in the country but also exported rolling stock to other countries. Each of these sixproduction units is headed by a General Manager, who also reports directly to the Railway Board. The sixProduction Units are:-Golden Rock Locomotive workshop (Trichy) (Diesel and Electric Locomotive)Chittranjan Locomotive Works (West Bengal) (Electric Locomotive)Diesel Locomotive works (Varanasi)Diesel Locomotive modernization works (Patiala, Punjab)Integral coach Factory (Chennai)Rail Coach Factory (Kapurthala, Punjab)
 
Rail Wheel Factory (Bangalore, Chhapra Bihar)Rail Coach Factory (Raebareli, UP)Public sector units:Bharat Wagon and Engineering Co. Ltd. (BWEL) Patna BiharCentre for Railway Information Systems (CRIS) develops all IT related works (New Delhi).Container Corporation of India Ltd (CONCOR)Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India Limited (DFCCIL)Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation (IRCTC)Indian Railway Construction International Limited (IRCON)Indian Railway Finance Corporation Limited (IRFC)Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (KRCL)Mumbai Railway Vikaas Corporation (MRVC)Railtel Corporation of India (RailTel)Rail India Technical and Economic Service(RITES)Rail Vikaas Nigam Limited (RVNL)Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), that has constructed and operates Delhi Metro network, is anindependent organisation not connected to the Indian Railways. Similar metro rail corporations in other cities(except Kolkata Metro in Kolkata) are not connected to the Indian Railways.Tracks and gauges:Indian railways uses four gauges, the 1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge which is wider thanthe 1,435 mm (4 ft 8
1
 ⁄ 
2
in) standard gauge; the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3
3
 ⁄ 
8
in) metre gauge; and two narrowgauges, 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft) . Track sections are rated for speeds ranging from 75 to 160 km/h(47 to 99 mph).Types of Passenger serviceDuronto Express: These are the non-stop point to point rail services (except for operational stops) introducedfor the first time in 2009 . They connect the metros and major state capitals of India and are faster thanRajdhani Express. The Duronto services consists of classes of accommodation namely first AC, two-tier AC,three-tier AC, AC 3 Tier Economy, Sleeper Class, General Class.Rajdhani Express: These are all air-conditioned trains linking major cities to New Delhi. The Rajdhanis have highpriority and are one of the fastest trains in India, travelling at about 130 km/h (82 mph). There are only a fewstops on a Rajdhani route.Food service is also provided in these class trainsShatabdi Express: The Shatabdi trains are AC intercity seater-type trains for travel during day. The name"Shatabdi" means centenary in Sanskrit and many other Indian languages. The first Shatabdi Express train was introduced in 1988 to commemorate the birth centenary oJawahar Lal Nehru,the first Prime Minister of India. Sri Madhav Rao Scindia was Indian Railway Minister 
at that point of time and the Shatabdi Express was his

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