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NYPD 'Stop-And-Frisk' Policy Ruled Unconstitutional

NYPD 'Stop-And-Frisk' Policy Ruled Unconstitutional

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Published by FindLaw



A key part of the NYPD’s controversial “stop and frisk” tactic has been ruled unconstitutional.



Federal Court Judge Shira Scheindlin ordered police to refrain from making some trespass stops outside private residential buildings — even though the landlord has given officers permission to do so as part of the NYPD’s “Clean Halls” program.



"While it may be difficult to say when precisely to draw the line between constitutional and unconstitutional police encounters such a line exists, and the NYPD has systematically crossed it when making trespass stops outside buildings," Scheindlin wrote in a 157-page ruling.



A key part of the NYPD’s controversial “stop and frisk” tactic has been ruled unconstitutional.



Federal Court Judge Shira Scheindlin ordered police to refrain from making some trespass stops outside private residential buildings — even though the landlord has given officers permission to do so as part of the NYPD’s “Clean Halls” program.



"While it may be difficult to say when precisely to draw the line between constitutional and unconstitutional police encounters such a line exists, and the NYPD has systematically crossed it when making trespass stops outside buildings," Scheindlin wrote in a 157-page ruling.

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Categories:Business/Law
Published by: FindLaw on Jan 10, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/17/2013

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UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTSOUTHERN DISTRICT
OF
NEW
YORK
--------------------------------------------------------
)(
JAENEAN LIGON, individually
and
onbehalf
of
her
minor son, J.G.; FAWNBRACY, individually
and
on behalf
of
her
minor son, W.B.; JACQUELINE YATES;OPINION
&
ORDER
LETITIA LEDAN;
ROSHEAJOHNSON;
KIERON JOHNSON; JOVAN
JEFFERSON;
A.O.,
by
his
parent
DINAH ADAMES;
12
Civ. 2274 (SAS)ABDULLAH TURNER; FERNANDOMORONTA;
and
CHARLES BRADLEY,individually
and
on behalf
of
a class
of
allothers similarly situated,Plaintiffs,-
against-
CITY
OF
NEW YORK; RAYMOND W.KELLY, COMMISSIONER
OF
THE NEWYORK CITY
POLICE
DEPARTMENT;
POLICE
OFFICER
JOHNNY BLASINI;
POLICE
OFFICER
GREGORYLOMANGINO;
POLICE
OFFICER
JOSEPH
KOCH;
POLICE
OFFICER
KIERON RAMDEEN;
POLICE
OFFICERJOSEPH
BERMUDEZ;
POLICE
OFFICER
MIGUEL SANTIAGO;
and POLICE
OFFICERS
JOHN
DOE 1-12,Defendants.
--------------------------------------------------------
)(
Case 1:12-cv-02274-SAS-HBP Document 96 Filed 01/08/13 Page 1 of 157
 
I.INTRODUCTION..............................................4II.LEGAL STANDARD FOR PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION...........10III.APPLICABLE LAW...........................................12A.Sources of Liability.......................................12B.The Fourth Amendment, Stops, and Reasonable Suspicion........16C.Criminal Trespass under New York State Law..................20D.
 De Bour 
................................................21IV.FINDINGS OF FACT..........................................23A.Evidence of an Unconstitutional Practice or Custom of the NYPD..231.Findings of Fact Regarding Testimony of ADA Rucker andDecline to Prosecute Forms...........................242.Findings of Fact Regarding PlaintiffsStops..............32a.Charles Bradleys Stop..........................35 b.Abdullah Turner’s Stops.........................41c.J.G.s Stop...................................49d.Jerome Grants Stop............................52e.Roshea Johnsons Stop..........................54f.Letitia Ledans Stops...........................57g.Fernando Morontas Stop........................59h.Kieron Johnsons Stop..........................61i. Jovan Jeffersons Stop..........................633.Expert Testimony Regarding UF-250 Forms..............66B.Steps Taken by the NYPD in 2012...........................811.NYPD Recognition of a Problem in TAP.................832.Interim Orders 22 and 23 of 2012.......................843.Absence of Steps Meaningfully Addressing Outdoor TAPStops.............................................88V. DISCUSSION................................................92
2
Case 1:12-cv-02274-SAS-HBP Document 96 Filed 01/08/13 Page 2 of 157
 
A. Standing................................................92B.Preliminary Injunctive Relief...............................951.Clear or Substantial Likelihood of Success on the Merits....95a.Deliberate Indifference..........................97i.ADA Ruckers Testimony..................97ii.PlaintiffsStops..........................98iii.Decline to Prosecute Forms................104iv.Dr. Fagans Analysis.....................106v.Notice to Defendants.....................117vi.Legal Analysis..........................118 b.Failure to Rebut Deliberate Indifference Claim Based onSteps Taken by NYPD in 2012...................1202.Irreparable Harm...................................1333.Balance of Equities.................................1354.Public Interest.....................................137C.Appropriate Scope of Injunctive Relief.......................1401.Immediate Relief...................................1422.Proposed Additional Relief...........................144a. Policies and Procedures........................145 b. Supervision..................................146c.Training....................................147d.AttorneysFees...............................148VI.CONCLUSION..............................................149APPENDIX A....................................................150APPENDIX B....................................................156
3
Case 1:12-cv-02274-SAS-HBP Document 96 Filed 01/08/13 Page 3 of 157

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