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Experts Report on Katyn PDF

Experts Report on Katyn PDF

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File: Expert's Report 2 Created on: 6/4/2012 2:36:00 PM Last Printed: 8/27/2012 12:00:00 PM
1
K
ATYN
:
 
J
USTICE
D
ELAYED OR
J
USTICE
D
ENIED
?R
EPORT OF THE
C
LEVELAND
E
XPERTS
 
M
EETING
 
Organized by:
Frederick K. Cox International Law Center Case Western Reserve University School of Lawand The Libra Institute, Inc.
Report Prepared by:
 Michael P. Scharf 
& Maria Szonert-Binienda
 I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
........................................................................................ 2
 
II.
 
C
HARACTERIZATION OF THE
K
ATYN
C
RIME
.......................................... 4
 
III.
 
A
CCOUNTABILITY FOR THE
K
ATYN
C
RIME
............................................. 5
 
IV.
 
R
ECONCILIATION THROUGH
D
ISCLOSURE
,
 
D
ISSEMINATION
&
 
A
CCOUNTABILITY
..................................................... 7
 
 A.
 
USSR/Russian Federation .................................................................
7
 
 B.
 
The United States ............................................................................
10
 
V.
 
R
EMEDIES AT THE
G
OVERNMENTAL
L
EVEL
......................................... 12
 
 A.
 
Poland .............................................................................................
12
 
1.
 
Prosecution for the Katyn Crime .............................................. 12
 
2.
 
Regional Forums ....................................................................... 13
 
a.
 
The European Union .......................................................... 13
 
b.
 
Council of Europe .............................................................. 13
 
3.
 
United Nations .......................................................................... 14
 
 
Associate Dean for Global Legal Studies and John Deaver Drinko
 — 
Baker & HostetlerProfessor of Law, Case Western Reserve University School of Law.
 
MariaSzonert-Binienda is the Founder and President of Libra Institute, Inc., an NGOdedicated to building lasting friendship between the people of Poland and the United States.As a law graduate of the University of Warsaw and Rutgers University with post-graduatescholarship in journalism, she publishes extensively, focusing on legal, historical, and currentaffairs issues. She is the author of 
 
W
ORLD
W
AR
II
THROUGH
P
OLISH
E
YES
(2002), and
 
N
ULLAND
V
OID
;
 
P
OLAND
:
 
C
ASE
S
TUDY ON
C
OMPARATIVE
I
MPERIALISM
 
(2008). She also serves asPresident of Kresy-Siberia Foundation, USA.
 
File: Expert's Report 2 Created on: 6/4/2012 2:36:00 PM Last Printed: 8/27/2012 12:00:00 PM
2
CASE W. RES. J. INT’
L L. [Vol. 44:1a.
 
International Court of Justice ............................................. 14
 
b.
 
Establishment of a Commission of Experts or Special Tribunal ................................................ 17
 
4.
 
Dissemination of Truth ............................................................. 18
 
 B.
 
USSR/Russian Federation ...............................................................
18
 
1.
 
Prosecute the Katyn crime as an international crime ................ 19
 
2.
 
Refrain from justifying the Katyn crime .................................. 20
 
3.
 
Provide adequate legal remedies to victims’ families
.............. 21
 
4.
 
Provide Poland with symbolic monetary compensation ........... 22
 
5.
 
Reimburse Poland for the cost of building &maintaining cemeteries of the victims ...................................... 22
 
6.
 
Establish the Katyn Museum & correct history books ............. 22
C.
 
The United States ............................................................................
22
 
1.
 
Consider implementing the Madden
Commission’s recommendations
.............................................. 22
 
2.
 
Assure full disclosure of all Katyn-related materials ................ 23
 
3.
 
Assure dissemination of knowledge on Katyn ......................... 24
 
4.
 
U.S. Congressional Resolution as moral compensation ........... 25
 
5.
 
U.S. Helsinki Commission ....................................................... 25
 
VI.
 
R
EMEDIES FOR
P
RIVATE
P
ARTIES
.......................................................... 26
 
 A.
 
 European Court of Human Rights ...................................................
26
 
 B.
 
U.S. Alien Tort Statute ....................................................................
26
 
C.
 
 Alternatives to the Alien Tort Statute ..............................................
31
 
VII.O
THER
R
EMEDIES AND
A
PPROACHES
.................................................... 32
 
 A.
 
 Non-Governmental Organizations ..................................................
32
 
 B.
 
 Academic Community ......................................................................
33
 
I. I
NTRODUCTION
 The Katyn massacre of 1940 involved murders at the Katyn forestand in other locations throughout the Soviet Union of about 22,000 Polishofficers, prisoners of war, and members of the Polish leading elite,
combined with mass deportations of the victims’ families and hundreds of 
thousands of Polish citizens to the remote provinces of the Soviet Union.
1
 For fifty years, the massacres in the Katyn forest and other locations weresubject to massive cover-up and obfuscation operations.
2
Initially the SovietUnion blamed the Nazis for the murders, saying that the killings took placein 1941 when the territory was in German hands. It was not until 1990 that
1
See generally
Beata Pasek,
 Russia Opens Its Files on the Katyn Massacre
, T
IME
, Apr.30, 2010.
2
See
 
WWII Behind Closed Doors: Stalin, the Nazis and the West 
 – 
The Katyn Massacre
,PBS
 
http://www.pbs.org/behindcloseddoors/in-depth/katyn-massacre.html (last visited May15, 2012).
 
File: Expert's Report 2 Created on: 6/4/2012 2:36:00 PM Last Printed: 8/27/2012 12:00:00 PM
2012] JUSTICE DELAYED OR JUSTICE DENIED? 3
 
the Russian government admitted that the executions actually took place in1940 and were carried out by the Soviet secret police.
3
In 1990, Russianprosecutors launched a criminal investigation into the murder of 22,000Polish officers and prisoners, but the case was classified as an ordinary
crime of “exceeding official authority” and was terminated in 2004 on the
ground of the application of the ten-year statute of limitations.
4
Records andfindings were classified as top secret,
5
and it appeared that the tragedy
would once again be subject to “historical amnesia.”
 On February 4
 – 
5, 2011, in commemoration of the 70
th
anniversaryof the Katyn massacre, the Frederick K. Cox International Law Center andthe Libra Institute, Inc. hosted a Symposium and Experts Meeting at CaseWestern Reserve University School of Law. This provided an opportunity tobring together leading international experts in jurisprudence, internationalcriminal law, and the Katyn crime, as well as representatives from Polandand Russia in order to debate the law and policy related to Katyn in a neu-tral setting. During four panel-style discussions on the first day, a diversegroup of highly qualified scholars presented and discussed Polish, Russian,and third-party views on the Katyn murders. The second day of the meetingconsisted of a round-table discussion with all the expert participants.
The Cleveland Symposium and Experts’ Meeting was chaired by
Michael P. Scharf, Director of the Cox Center and the John DeaverDrinko
 — 
Baker & Hostetler Professor of Law at Case Western ReserveUniversity School of Law. The event kicked off with introductory speechesby Hon. Dennis Kucinich, U.S. Representative (D, OH-10), and Hon. MarcyKaptur, U.S. Representative (D, OH-9), and video-taped remarks presentedby Sherrod Brown, U.S. Senator (D, Ohio). Stephen Rapp, U.S. Ambassa-dor-at-Large for War Crimes Issues presented a Keynote Address.The experts included (in alphabetical order): Wesley Adamczyk,
victims’ representative; Prof. John Q. Barrett, St. John University School of 
Law; Prof. Janusz Cisek, Centre for European Studies, Jagiellonian
3
Id.
 
4
See
 
 Russia Hands Over New Declassified Files to Poland 
, RIA
 
N
OVOSTI
(Apr. 7, 2011),http://en.rian.ru/russia/20110407/163420319.html (detailing the Katyn massacre body countand the findings from the Katyn massacre investigation);
see also
Maria Szonert, Letter tothe Editor,
Countries’ Relations Strained, Bath Resident Says
, A
KRON
.
COM
(May 12, 2011),http://www.akron.com/editions/Akron-Ohio-News-2011-May-12/Countries_relations_
strained_Bath_resident_says.asp?aID=12431 (discussing the Russian courts’ classification of the Katyn massacre as “an ordinary domestic crime of ‘exceeding official authority’”).
 
5
See
Alexander Guryanov,
 Działania Stowarzyszenia Memoriał W Związku Ze Sprawą Katyńską
[
 Memorial Association of Katyn
],
in
22 Z
ESZYTY KATYŃSKIE
 – 
 
Z
BRODNIA
KATYŃSKA W OCZACH WSPÓŁCZESNYCH
R
OSJAN
[K
ATYN
N
OTEBOOKS
 – 
 
T
HE
K
ATYN
M
ASSACRE IN THE
E
YES OF THE
C
ONTEMPORARY
R
USSIAN
]
 
20 (
Marka Tarczyńskiego ed.,
 
2007),
 
available at 
http://www.ipn.gov.pl/ftp/katyn/ZESZYT22-Zbrodnia_katynska_w_oczach_wspolczesnych_rosjan.pdf.

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