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b 0529042212

b 0529042212

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Published by: nguynphuthanh on Jan 11, 2013
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International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE)ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-2, May 201288
A simple new
phase frequency detector and chargepump design are presented in this paper. The proposed PFDuses only 4 transistors and preserves the main characteristicsof the conventional PFD. Both PFD and charge pump areimplemented using cadence 0.1
8 μ
m CMOS Process. Themaximum frequency of operation is 5 GHz when operating at1.8V voltage supply. It has free dead zone. It can be used inhigh speed and low power consumption applications. Thismakes the proposed PFD more suitable to low jitterapplications.
 Index Terms
PFD, PLL, High speed
Phase locked loop (PLL) is a main block in manyapplications such as wireless communication systems, digitalcircuits, and receivers. It is a clock or carrier generator.These applications need low power blocks to have long lifebattery. The Two non linear components present in PLL arePhase Frequency Detector (PFD) and Voltage controlledoscillator (VCO). The main concept of PFD is comparing twoinput frequencies in terms of both phase and frequency. In aPLL the two frequencies are reference frequency (Fref) andthe voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) output after divisionby N (Fvco). The output is a pulse proportional to the phasedifference between the inputs and it drives the charge pumpto either increase the control voltage of the VCO or decreaseit or keep it without change. A PFD is usually built using astate machine with memory element such as D flip-flop.There are many topologies moving towards simplifying thecircuit and reducing the dead zone. Dead zone is a mainproperty in the PFD phase characteristics as it introduces jitter to the PLL system.
The PFD doesn’t detect the phase
error when it is within the dead zone region, then PLL locksto a wrong phase. This paper presents a novel PFDarchitecture. is composed of only 4 transistors. It has freedead zone, consumes low power, and operates at high speed.
The basic architecture of a PFD is the conventionalPFD as shown in Figure 1. D-FF is implemented usingCMOS logic. It has the drawbacks of dead zone, high power
Manuscript received on April 19, 2012.
S B Rashmi
, Department of ECE, VTU extension Center, UTLTechnologies Bangalore Karnataka India/ Mobile No.,9480206522(e-mail: rashmi_akshay@yahoo.co.in).
Dr Siva S Yellampalli
, Department of ECE, VTU extension Center UTLTechnologies Bangalore Karnataka India,(e-mail: siva.yellampalli@utltraining.com).
consumption when operating at high frequency as theinternal nodes are not completely pulled up or pulled down,limited speed as the maximum operation frequency isinversely proportional to the reset pulse width of the circuit,and large area for large no. of transistors. Inverters are usedas a delay circuit to reduce dead zone [1]
Fig. 1 Architecture of conventional PFD
TSPC D-FF is more used in designing D-FF of PFD forsupporting high speed operation (Johnson et al, 2004).Modified pre-charge type PFD (MPt-PFD) is designed usingTSPC-DFF as shown in Figure 2. It has free dead zone using16 transistors (Lee et al, 1999).
Fig. 2
PFD designed by using TSPC D-FF
As we mentioned before, dead-zone is due to small phaseerror. When the phase
difference between PFD’s input
signals, the output signals of the PFD will not be proportionalto this error [10]. The reason of this problem is the delay timeof the internal components of the flip-flop and the reset timethat need s the AND gate to reset both flip flops [11]. Figure3 illustrates the dead zone problem. When the two clocks arevery close to each other (small phase error), due to the delaytime the reset delay, the output signals UP and DOWN willnot be able to charge and no output will signal leading tolosing this small difference.
Design of Phase Frequency Detector andCharge Pump for High Frequency PLL
S. B. Rashmi, Siva S. Yellampalli
Design of Phase Frequency Detector and Charge Pump for High Frequency PLL89
Fig 3 : Dead Zone
Figure 4 illustrates the output voltage vs. the phase errormeasured by the PFD. Figure.4a illustrates the relation in nodead zone PFDs, while figure 4b illustrates the relation in thepresence of a dead zone. We can see that in a dead zone PFDsthe relation become nonlinear around zero. This is due toinability to detect the phase error in this region. Plenty osolution has been done for this problem some of them reducethe delay time in the internal components of the PFDs, othersolution eliminate the reset path by implementing new resettechniques that will not create a delay and produce a highspeed PFDs
Figure 4: Phase Error vs. Output VoltageNo Dead Zone (b) Dead Zone
The circuit diagram of proposed PFD is as shown in belowfigure 7 it works similar to conventional PFDs but it hasmany advantages compared to conventional PFDs. ThisPFDs is basically constructed with two GDI (Gate DiffusionInput) cells. A basic GDI cell contains four terminals
G(common gate input of nMOS and pMOS transistors), P (theouter diffusion node of pMOS transistor), N (the outerdiffusion node of nMOS transistor), and D (commondiffusion node of both transistors) . This technique allowsreducing power consumption, propagation delay, and area of digital circuits. The GDI method is based on the simple cellshown in Figure Table I shows how different logic functionsimplemented with GDI cell.
Fig 5 Basic GDI cell
When Fclk is equal to Fvco both the outputs that is Up andDown are zero, if Fclk is high compared to Fvco Then upsignal is high else down signal is high indicating the phaseerror between Fclk and Fvco The conditions of inputs andoutputs are depicted in state machine diagram shown in fig6.
N P G D Function
Fig 6 PFD state diagramFig 7 Circuit diagram of the proposed PFD
Inputs(Fclk and Fvco) and outputs( Up and down) of theproposed logic at 5 GHZ is as shown in below fig 8. Outputsare verified according to the state machine diagram.
International Journal of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE)ISSN: 2231-2307, Volume-2, Issue-2, May 201290
Fig 8 Input and output waveforms of the proposed PFD
The maximum operation frequency is defined as theshortest period with correct UP and DN signals together withthe inputs have the same frequency and 90
degree phasedifference [7]. A comparison of maximum operationfrequency between conventional PFD, TSPC-PFD andproposed PFD is shown in Figure 9. The comparison showsthe variations of the maximum operation frequency withsupply voltage. At 1.8V voltage supply the maximumoperation frequency of the conventional PFD is 500 MHz, forMPt-PFD is 1.5 GHz and proposed PFD is 4.5Ghz .Thisindicates that proposed PFD is reliable in high speedapplications.
9 Maximum operation frequency function of supply voltagefor various PFDs
Figure10 shows a longer simulation done on proposed PFD.The input CLK frequency is 500 MHz with Fclk leading Fvcoby 20ps; this will result in having UP signal as we can seefrom the graph. This PFD were able to operate at muchhigher frequency 5GHZ is the highest frequency the PFD willoperate at. Even at the phase difference of 20ps between Fclk and Fvco the proposed PFD is able to detect the differencewhich is depicted in fig10.
Fig 10 Simulation results of the proposed PFD with a delay of 20ps
 Parametric analysis is done on PFD on variable temp therange is from 10 degrees to 100 degrees the analysis responseis depicted in fig11. This indicates that proposed PFD isinvariant with temperature. The delay of the proposedarchitecture is 19.71ns and is depicted in fig 12 Thisindicates that dead zone of the proposed architecture isapproximately 20 ns and is much superior when comparedwith the conventional PFDs.
Fig 11 PFD output waveforms of parametric analysis for temperatureranging from 10 degrees to 100 degrees

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