Arc Welding 1Purpose:To provide a brief introduction to engineering students about metal arc welding.To learn the basic techniques of welding.To give a real life experience of metal arc welding to engineering students.Equipment:Welding Machine.Welding is a metal-joining process in which coalescence is obtained by heat and/or pressure. In arch welding, the fusion is obtained by heat produced from an electric arch between the work and the electrode. Generally, there are 2 types ofwelding machine:a) Alternating Current-ACThis type of machine is very useful in workshop and farm workshop. It is particularly designed for small voltage work for example 37.5 amps. It is essential forwelding work in all conditions without considering whether the voltage is smallor large. One of its distinctive advantage is it is cheap, easy to be maintained and it does not result in a lot of noise during welding operations. Although this type of machine is mobile, it can only use limited amount of electrode. Apart from that, it does not have movable components and cannot be used on aluminumelectrode. It uses only one level of electricity.b) Direct Current-DCDirect current machine is built in capacities up to 1000A, having an open circuit voltage 40 to 95 V. This type of machine is very expensive and it uses three level of electricity and it requires a generator to provide the current. The advantages of using the direct current is there is no confinement on the type of electrode being used and it is a good method to do welding operations in places with no electric supply. However, thi type of machine also has a few disadvantages.It is usually difficult to maintain and it also produces a lot of noise while functioning. Normally, high-powered DC machines use air or gasoline cooling system. The machine amps limit is between 180
200 amps. All welding machines have their own degree of heat so that it can be used to weld metal work metal and electrode of different sizes. Apart from that, it should be kept in a safe and dry place to protect the machine. If it is stored in damp and cold places, the transformer and the generator may have a risk of damage.Cables.Generally, there are two cables that carry the electricity from welding machineto work metal and back to welding machine and earth cable. These cables are madefrom small copper wire coated with strong rubber so that we can hold it withoutfeeling the intense heat. Besides that, every cable has it own size. For instance, size No. 2 means that the cable will be able to withstand welding electricity up to 200 amps. These cables are connected to the welding machine through itscopper end.Electrode Holder.The electrode holder has a few functions. Firstly, it is used to provide the electricity from welding machine to metal work. It is also used to hold the electrode during the welding operations. One of its constructive parts is the spring where it can hold the electrode firmly and withdrawn the electrode easily after finish welding. A few important requirements for the electrode holder are the electrode holder must be lightweight, has good rubber coating and easy to handle forcertain period of time. Apart from that, it must also have its own size for theamount of electric current that it can carry.