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Filozofija znanosti

Filozofija znanosti

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Published by: shorinkarate on Feb 10, 2009
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06/21/2014

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UVOD U FILOZOFIJU ZNANOSTI
 
 2
SADRŽAJ:
UVOD - Filozofija znanosti..................................................................................................6
1. Znanost i modeli objašnjenja
...........................................................................101.1. Modeli objašnjenja....................................................................................................111.1.1. Deduktivni model objašnjenja............................................................................181.1.2. Objašnjenje zakona.............................................................................................201.1.3. Objašnjenje i epistemološki zahtjev...................................................................231.1.4. Zakoni u znanosti i njihov logicki status............................................................261.1.5. Eksperimentalni zakoni i teorije......................................................................451.2. Znanstvena metoda....................................................................................................601.2.1. Cinjenice i znanstvena metoda...........................................................................601.2.2. Neke karakteristike hipoteze i znanstvena metoda.............................................621.2.3. ''Ideal'' znanosti...................................................................................................621.2.4. Osobina znanstvenog metoda da sam sebe ispravlja..........................................631.2.5. Ogranicenosti i vrijednosti znanstvenog metoda................................................641.2.6. Apstraktna priroda znanstvenih teorija...............................................................661.2.7. Tipovi znanstvenih teorija..................................................................................67
2. Empirizam i racionalizam
.................................................................................69
3. Filozofija i znanost ( jedan primjer )
...........................................................763.1. Radanje znanosti u modernom smislu......................................................................793.2. Znanost u užem smislu..............................................................................................843.3. Znanost, zdravi razum i filozofija........................................................................853.4. Filozofija i realne znanost.........................................................................................87
4. Henry Poincaré i filozofija znanosti
.............................................................894.1. Filozofija geometrije.................................................................................................914.2. Generalizirani konvencionalizam..............................................................................954.3. Semanticki konvencionalizam.................................................................................1004.4. Uloga eksperimenata i generalizacije......................................................................1004.5. Uloga hipoteze.........................................................................................................1044.6. Porijeklo matematicke fizike...................................................................................1064.7. Klasicna mehanika...................................................................................................108
5. Pozitivizam
.............................................................................................................1125.1. Motivi nastajanja modernog pozitivizma................................................................1135.2. Stariji Imanencijalni pozitivizam i Logicki pozitivizam........................................115
6. Filozofija L. Wittgensteina
............................................................................1176.1. Wittgenstein Tractatus logico- philosophicus...................................................118
7. Logicki pozitivizam
............................................................................................1287.1. Filozofske prethodnice logickog pozitivizma.........................................................1287.2. Osnovni stavovi logickog pozitivizma....................................................................1327.2.1. Princip verifikacije..........................................................................................1357.2.2. Tumacenje i objašnjavanje pojmova...............................................................1397.2.3. Aksiomske definicije i pravljenje razlike izmedu pravih i nepravih pojmova1407.2.4. Pojam definicije pridodavanja.........................................................................1417.2.5. Radikalni empirizam.......................................................................................1427.2.6. Besmislenost metafizike..................................................................................1427.2.7. Revizija starog kriterija smisla........................................................................1517.2.8. Kriteriji smislenosti.........................................................................................151
 
37.2.9. Redukcija iskaza sadržaja na iskaze strukture................................................1527.3. Struktura znanstvenog jezika.................................................................................1527.4. Struktura empirijske spoznaje................................................................................1547.4.1. Protokolarni stavovi.........................................................................................1547.4.2. Problem sustava konstitucije empirijskih pojmova........................................1557.4.3. Fizikalizam i ideja jedinstvene nauke............................................................1557.5. Potvrdenost teorije.................................................................................................156
8. Znanstvena filozofija H. Reichenbacha
...................................................1608.1. Traganje za opcenitošcu i pseudoobjašnjenja.........................................................1668.2. Empiricki pristup – uspjeh i neuspjeh.....................................................................1708.3. Znanstvena filozofija.............................................................................................1728.3.1. Priroda geometrije..........................................................................................1728.3.2. Prirodni zakoni................................................................................................1738.3.3. Moderna logika...............................................................................................1748.3.4. Saznanje predvidanja......................................................................................1768.3.5. Funkcionalno shvacanje spoznaje...................................................................1778.4. Lingvisticki obrat....................................................................................................179
9. Neki primjeri kritike pozitivistickog programa
.................................1829.1. Analiticki i sinteticki sudovi...................................................................................1839.2. Quine – dvije dogme empirizma.............................................................................1869.3. Problem verifikacije................................................................................................1979.4. Mogucnost falsificiranja generalnih iskaza............................................................2019.5. Problem indukcije..................................................................................................202
10. Pozitivisticka slika znanosti i njena kritika
........................................20410.1. Kritika pozitivisticke slike znanosti.....................................................................210
11. Kriticki racionalizam Karla Poppera
..................................................21911.1. Popperov treci svijet..............................................................................................23611.2. Opce naznake pristupa K. Poppera.......................................................................241
12. Thomas Kuhn – Struktura znanstvenih revolucija
.........................24712.1. Thomas Kuhn - Struktura znanstvenih revolucija................................................25312.2. Opce naznake Kuhnovog stajališta......................................................................261
13. Realizam u filozofiji znanosti
....................................................................26513.1. Znanstvena slika svijeta.......................................................................................26613.2. Realizam i antirealizam u filozofiji znanosti.......................................................27313.3. Istina je nedostižna...............................................................................................27813.4. Istina je dostižna...................................................................................................28313.5. Problem objektivnosti uzroka..............................................................................28813.6. Postojanje teorijskih entiteta i istinitost teorija....................................................291
14. Sociološki obrat
.................................................................................................29414.1. Feyerabendova kritika položaja znanosti u društvu.............................................29614.1.1. Razvoj znanosti..............................................................................................29714.1.2. Iskljucivost znanosti......................................................................................29814.1.3. Demokracija i tradicija..................................................................................30014.1.4. Anarhicna znanost. Dadaizam......................................................................30114.2. Neki elementi za kritiku Feyerabendovog stava..................................................303
15. Naturalizam
........................................................................................................30615.1. Interakcijska epistemologija.................................................................................308

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