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Glossary Environmental Health and Toxicology

Glossary Environmental Health and Toxicology

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Published by: owls_1102 on Jan 11, 2013
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Glossary: Environmental Health and Toxicology (Terms are listed in the approximate order encountered in the lecture).
- A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being.
A deleterious change in the body’s condition in response to an environmental factor.
Pathogenic organisms
- Organisms, including bacteria, viruses or cysts, capable of causing diseases(typhoid, cholera, dysentery) in a host (such as a person).http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/pqrs/pathogenic-organisms.htm 
Infectious diseases
 An infectious disease or communicable disease is caused by a biologicalagent such as by a virus, bacterium or parasite. http://www.metrohealth.org/body.cfm?id=1570 
Conditions relating to public health, esp. the provision of clean drinking water andadequate sewage disposal.
Vaccination programs
- A series of vaccinations, including the timing of all doses, which may be eitherrecommended or compulsory, depending on the country of residence.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination_program 
Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY)
- Combines premature deaths and loss of healthy life resultingfrom illness or disability.
World Health Organization
is the directing and coordinating authority for health within theUnited Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping thehealth research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options,providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends.http://www.who.int/about/en/ 
Malnutrition is the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function.http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/malnutrition
Emergent disease
A disease one never known before, or has been absent for at least 20 years.
Ecological Diseases
Emergent ecological diseases are relatively recent phenomena involvingextensive damage being caused to natural communities and ecosystems. In some cases, thespecific causes of the ecological damage are known, but in others they are not yetunderstood. http://www.bookrags.com/research/emergent-ecological-diseases-enve-01/ 
Antibiotic resistance
The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to resist the effectsof an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive. Antibiotic resistance is a major concern of overuseof antibiotics. Also known as drug resistance.http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2276 
Pesticide resistance
continued use of a single agent, or a group of closely allied agents,can cause selective survival of insects with innate tolerance of the agent and lead to the development of aresistant population. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Pesticide+resistance 
Staphylococcus aureus 
(MRSA) infection is caused by a strain ofstaph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections.http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mrsa/DS00735 
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis-
MDR TB is a form of drug-resistant TB in which TB bacteria can nolonger be killed by at least the two best antibiotics, isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF), commonly used tocure TB. As a result, this form of the disease is more difficult to treat than ordinary TB and requires up to2 years of multidrug treatment.http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/tuberculosis/understanding/whatistb/pages/tbdefinitions.aspx 
Hazardous chemicals
Dangerous, flammable, explosive, irritant, sensitizer, acidic, or causticchemicals.
Toxic chemicals
Poisonous; can be general or very specific. Often harmful even in diluteconcentrations.
- Substances that activate the immune system.
- Allergens that are recognized as foreign by white blood cells and stimulate the production ofspecific antibodies.
Sick Building Syndrome
 An illness affecting workers in office buildings, characterized by skinirritations, headache, and respiratory problems, and thought to be caused by indoor pollutants,microorganisms, or inadequate ventilation. Also called
building sickness 
Environmental Protection Agency:
An independent federal agency established to coordinateprograms aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment.http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Environmental+Protection+Agency 
- Special class of metabolic poisons that specifically attack nerve cells.
Heavy Metals -
Kill nerve cells. Examples: lead and mercury
- Agents that damage or alter genetic material.
- Specifically cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and development.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
FAS) is a pattern of mental and physical defects that can develop in a fetusin association with high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Surgeon General of the United

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