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ies psu prepration notes by sk mondal

ies psu prepration notes by sk mondal

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Published by: Devansh Singh Pathania on Jan 12, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/27/2014

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Classification of Materials
¾
Three basic groups of solid engineering materials based onatomic bonds and structures:MetalsCeramicsPolymers
¾
Classification can also be done based on either properties(
mechanical, electrical, optical
), areas of applications(
structures, machines, devices
). Further we can subdividethese groups.
¾
According to the present engineering needs:Composites, Semiconductors, Biomaterials
 
Metals
¾
Characteristics are owed to non-localized electrons (metallicbond between atoms) i.e. electrons are not bound to aparticular atom.
¾
They are characterized by their high thermal and electricalconductivities.
¾
They are opaque, can be polished to high lustre. The opacityand reflectivity of a metal arise from the response of theunbound electrons to electromagnetic vibrations at lightfrequencies.
¾
Relatively heavier, strong, yet deformable.E.g.: Steel, Aluminium, Brass, Bronze, Lead, Titanium, etc.
 
Ceramics
¾
They contain both metallic and nonmetallic elements.
¾
Characterized by their higher resistance to high temperaturesand harsh environments than metals and polymers.
¾
Typically good insulators to passage of both heat andelectricity.
¾
Less dense than most metals and alloys.
¾
They are harder and stiffer, but brittle in nature.
¾
They are mostly oxides, nitrides, and carbides of metals.
¾
Wide range: traditional (
clay, silicate glass, cement 
) toadvanced (
carbides, pure oxides, non-silicate glasses
).E.g.: Glass, Porcelain, Minerals, etc.

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