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Biological Molecules Information Sheet

Biological Molecules Information Sheet

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Published by Bio_Joe
Basic GCSE information about: Glucose, Starch, Proteins, DNA, Lipids & Enzymes
Basic GCSE information about: Glucose, Starch, Proteins, DNA, Lipids & Enzymes

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Published by: Bio_Joe on Jan 12, 2013
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12/08/2013

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Glucose
 
Is a carbohydrate (made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only)
 
Has the chemical formula C
6
H
12
O
6
 
 
Is a monosaccharide (only made of one molecule)
 
Used as an energy source for respiration to make ATP
 
2 glucose molecules bonded together make maltose (a disaccharide found in seeds)
 
Many glucose molecules joined together form starch
 
The test for glucose is the Benedict’s test
 1.
 
Place the substance you wish to test in a test tube (it must be a liquid)2.
 
Add a few drops of Benedict’s solution
 3.
 
Carefully heat the test tube in a water bath (the water must be greater than 60
O
C4.
 
If glucose is present there will be a colour change5.
 
If there is a small amount of glucose present the solution will turn green6.
 
If there is more glucose present the solution will turn orange7.
 
If there is a lot of glucose present the solution will turn brick red
Starch
 
 
Is a carbohydrate (made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen only)
 
Polysaccharide made up more than 10 glucose molecules joined together
 
Is the energy storage molecule in plants (found in amyloplasts)
 
Is a large and insoluble molecule
 
Is digested in the body to produce glucose for respiration to produce ATP
 
Foods that are high in starch include: potatoes, bread & pasta
 
The test for starch is the Iodine test1.
 
Place the substance you wish to test into a test tube (it must be liquid)2.
 
Add a few drops of iodine solution (an orange/brown colour)3.
 
If starch is present the iodine will turn blue/black4.
 
The more starch there is the darker the colour change will be
 
Proteins
 
Used in organisms for growth and repair
 
Contain the elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and many have Sulphur
 
A polymer made of amino acids joined together
 
There are 20 different types of amino acid
 
What makes proteins different is the sequence of amino acids they contain
 
Proteins have a unique three dimensional shape that help them with their function
 
Haemoglobin, enzymes, antibodies, keratin (found in skin, hair and finger nails) and some hormones(such as insulin) are examples of proteins
 
The test for proteins is the biuret test1.
 
Place the substance you wish to test into a test tube (it must be liquid)2.
 
Add a few drops of sodium hydroxide (NaOH)3.
 
Add a few drops of copper (II) sulphate (CuSO
4
)4.
 
If protein is present the solution will turn purple, if there is no protein the solution will stay blue
Lipids
 
Used as an energy store in the body
 
Contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
 
Fats & Oils are Triglycerides, a molecules made up of a glycerol (C
3
H
8
O
3
) bonded to three fatty acids.
 
Fat is solid at room temperature (e.g. butter)
 
Oils are liquid at room temperature (e.g. olive oil)
 
Saturated fats have no double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acids (alkanes)
 
Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond in the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acids (alkenes)
 
The test for lipids is the emulsion test1.
 
Place the substance you wish to test into a test tube (it must be liquid)2.
 
Add 2cm3 ethanol to the substance and shake the test tube3.
 
Add 2cm3 water to the test tube and shake again4.
 
If lipids are present the water will turn cloudy white

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