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Software Engineering Book by danny dsouza

Software Engineering Book by danny dsouza

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Published by Danny Dsouza

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Published by: Danny Dsouza on Jan 12, 2013
Copyright:Public Domain

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07/14/2013

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7
Jcvvnk 7
Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` gkm Hnmcjv
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Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` lgv `gakcm g rlcknhckgj ahrnt}gkfc ak }lc tcfck} qcgtv ak }lc Vqv}chMcycjnrhck} Jaic Fqfjc+ Hgkq jcgtkcm rcnrjc lgyc pntecm nk }lc }nraf gkm rtnyamcm ygtansv}cflkawscv gkm hc}lnmnjn`acv int ciicf}ayc gkm ciiafack} }cv}ak`+ ]nmgq* cyck }lns`l pc lgychgkq dnnev gkm gt}afjcv nk vni}pgtc }cv} ck`akcctak`* rcnrjc gtc igjjgfansv ak skmctv}gkmak` }lcskmctjqak` fnkfcr}v ni }lc vsdocf}+Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` Hgmc Cgvq av gahcm g} dtak`ak` }lc }cflkafgja}acv ni Vni}pgtcCk`akcctak` ak}n nkc rjgfc gkm gttayak` g} g fnhhnk skmctv}gkmak`+ Pc pgk}cm }n dtak` ns} g dgvceknpjcm`c dgke plctc vni}pgtc ck`akcctv fgk v}gt} }n jcgtk }lc vfackfc gkm gt} ni Vni}pgtcCk`akcctak`* Vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` av jgqctcm }cflknjn`q+ A} fnhrtavcv ni g wsgja}q infsv* rtnfcvv*hc}lnmv gkm }nnjv+ Plck qns dsajm g rtnmsf} nt vqv}ch a} skmct`ncv g vctacv ni v}crv.v}g`cv* g tngmhgr }lg} lcjrv qns }n ftcg}c g }ahcjq* la`l wsgja}q rtnmsf}+ ]lav av gflacycm injjnpak` }lc vni}pgtcrtnfcvv+ Vni}pgtc Rtnfcvv fnhcv skmct Shdtcjjg gf}aya}q ni Vni}pgtc Wsgja}q Gvvstgkfc ,VWG!gkm Vni}pgtc Fnkia`stg}ank Hgkg`chck} ,VFH!+ Vni}pgtc hnmcjv gtc rgt} ni tcgj pntjmvsttnskmak` sv* jaec dgkeak` nt }lc gatjakc dnneak`+ ]lav pntjm gtnskm sv flgk`cv nyct }ahc+ Vn }lcvni}pgtc lgv }n flgk`c }nn+ A} lgv }n cynjyc }n`c}lct pa}l }lc flgk`ak` tcgja}q+
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Plg} av Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` * a}v vfnrc * fnk}ck} gkm ahrnt}gkfcPlg} gtc }lc vni}pgtc rtndjchv]n eknp }lc rlgvcv ak mcycjnrhck}+ Ni vni}pgtc]qrcv ni Vni}pgtc Grrjafg}ankv+Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` Fnmc ni C}lafv]n skmctv}gkm }lc Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` Grrtngfl]n skmctv}gkm Flgtgf}ctav}afv ni 
 
Vni}pgtc Rtnfcvv]n skmctv}gkm Mciaka}ank ni Vni}pgtc Rtnfcvv]n skmctv}gkm Vni}pgtc Jaic Fqfjc Hnmcj]n skmctv}gkm Vni}pgtc Mcycjnrhck} Rtnfcvv
 
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–Eknpjcm`c av ni }pn eakmv? pc eknp g vsdocf} nstvcjycv* nt pc eknp plctc pc fgk iakmakinthg}ank srnk a}+’
(Vghscj OnlkvnkVni}pgtc av rjgqak` gk akftcgvak`jq ahrnt}gk} gkm fck}tgj tnjc ak gjj gvrcf}v ni mgajq jaic
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ak`nyctkhck}* dgkeak` gkm iakgkfc* }cgflak`* }tgkvrnt}g}ank* ck}ct}gakhck}* hcmafg}ank* igthak`* gkmjgp+ ]lc kshdct* vazc* gkm grrjafg}ank mnhgakv ni rtn`tghv dcak` mcycjnrcm lgyc `tnpkmtghg}afgjjq5 gv g tcvsj}* dajjankv ni mnjjgtv gtc dcak` vrck} nk vni}pgtc mcycjnrhck}* gkm }lcjaycjalnnm gkm jaycv ni hajjankv matcf}jq mcrckm nk }lc ciicf}ayckcvv ni }lav mcycjnrhck}+Skint}skg}cjq* }lctc gtc vcyctc rtndjchv ak }lc fnv}* }ahcjakcvv* gkm wsgja}q ni hgkq vni}pgtcrtnmsf}v5 cyck hntc vctansv av }lc ciicf} }lg} wsgja}q rtndjchv fgk lgyc nk }lc vgic}q(fta}afgjcjchck}v ni vni}pgtc }lg} matcf}jq giicf} }lc lcgj}l gkm pcjigtc ni lshgkv+
Plg} av Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` gkm Plq av a} Ahrnt}gk}>
Ak ygtansv }c|}v nk }lav }nraf* nkc ckfnsk}ctv g mciaka}ank ni }lc }cth vni}pgtc ck`akcctak`+Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak` mciakcm ak }lc iatv} KG]N fnkictckfc gv ,Mciaka}ank dq Ita}z Dgsct
–Vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` av }lc cv}gdjavlhck} svc ni }lc vnskm ck`akcctak` rtakfarjcv ak ntmct }n
nd}gak cfn
knhafgjjq vni}pgtc a+c+ tcjagdjc gkm pntev ciiafack}jq nk tcgj hgflakcv+’
 
ACCC v}gkmgtm Mciaka}ank ni Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak`
Vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` av grrjafg}ank ni vqv}chg}af* mavfarjakcm* wsgk}aiagdjc grrtngfl }nmcycjnrhck}* nrctg}ank gkm hgak}ckgkfc ni vni}pgtc a+c+ grrjafg}ank ni ck`akcctak` }n vni}pgtc+
Ahrnt}gkfc ni vni}pgtc ck`akcctak`
Vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` av gk ck`akcctak` grrtngfl int vni}pgtc mcycjnrhck}+ Pc fgk gj}ctkg}aycjq yacp a}gv g vqv}chg}af fnjjcf}ank ni rgv} c|rctackfc+ ]lc c|rctackfc av gttgk`cm ak }lc inth ni hc}lnmnjn`acvgkm `samcjakcv+ G vhgjj rtn`tgh fgk dc pta}}ck kn} akfjsmak` svak` vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` rtakfarjcv+ Ds}ai nkc pgk}v }n mcycjnr g ls`c vni}pgtc rtnmsf}* }lck vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` rtakfarjcv gtc ftsfagj }ngflacyc g c|fcjjck} wsgja}q vni}pgtc fnv} ciicf}aycjq+ ]lcvc mciaka}ankv fgk dc cjgdntg}cm pa}l }lc lcjrni g dsajmak` fnkv}tsf}ank gkgjn`q+Vsrrnvc qns lgyc g fnhrgkank pln gvecm qns }n dsajm g vhgjj pgjj gv vlnpk ak ia`+ 7+7+ Qns pnsjm dcgdjc }n mn }lg} svak` qnst fnhhnk vckvc+ Qns pajj `c} dsajmak` hg}ctagjv jaec dtafev5 fchck} c}f+ gkmqns pajj }lck dsajm }lc pgjj+
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G Vhgjj PgjjDs} plg} pnsjm lgrrck ai }lc vghc itackm gvecm qns }n dsajm g jgt`c hsj}a(v}ntcqcm dsajmak` gv vlnpkak ia`+ 7+4
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Qns mnk} lgyc g yctq `nnm amcg gdns} dsajmak` vsfl g ls`c fnhrjc|+ A} pnsjm dc yctq maiiafsj} }nc|}ckm qnst amcg gdns} g vhgjj pgjj fnkv}tsf}ank ak}n fnkv}tsf}ak` g jgt`c dsajmak`+ Cyck ai qns }tacm }ndsajm g jgt`c dsajmak`* a} pnsjm fnjjgrvc dcfgsvc qns pnsjm kn} lgyc }lc tcwsava}c eknpjcm`c gdns} }lcrnpct ni tcvnstfcv* }cv}ak`* rjgkkak`* gtfla}cf}stgj mcva`k* c}f+ Dsajmak` g vhgjj pgjj gkm dsajmak` gjgt`c dsajmak` gtc ck}atcjq maiictck} dgjj `ghcv+ Qns fgk svc qnst ak}sa}ank gkm v}ajj dc vsffcvvisj akdsajmak` g vhgjj pgjj* ds} dsajmak` g jgt`c dsajmak` tcwsatcv eknpjcm`c ni fayaj* gtfla}cf}stgj gkm fsttck}ck`akcctak` rtakfarjcv+Pa}lns} svak` vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` rtakfarjcv a} pnsjm dc maiiafsj} }n mcycjnr jgt`c rtn`tghv+ Akakmsv}tq a} av svsgjjq kccmcm }n mcycjnr jgt`c rtn`tghv }n gffnhhnmg}c hsj}arjc iskf}ankv+ G rtndjchpa}l mcycjnrak` vsfl ls`c dsvakcvv(tcjg}cm rtn`tghv av }lg} }lc maiiafsj}q gkm maiiafsj}q jcycjv ni }lcrtn`tghv akftcgvc c|rnkck}agjjq pa}l }lcat vazcv+ Int c|ghrjc* g rtn`tgh ni vazc 7*222 jakcv ni fnmc lgvvnhc fnhrjc|a}q+ Ds} g rtn`tgh pa}l 72*222 JNF av kn} osv} 72 }ahcv hntc maiiafsj} }n mcycjnr* ds}hgq gv pcjj }stk ns} }n dc 722 }ahcv hntc maiiafsj} skjcvv vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` rtakfarjcv gtc svcm+ Akvsfl va}sg}ankv vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` }cflkawscv fnhc }n tcvfsc+ Vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` lcjrv }n tcmsfc}lc rtn`tghhak` fnhrjc|a}q+ Vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` rtakfarjcv svc }pn ahrnt}gk} }cflkawscv }n tcmsfcrtndjch fnhrjc|a}q? gdv}tgf}ank gkm mcfnhrnva}ank+
 Cynjs}ank ni Vni}pgtc Ck`akcctak`
]lc vni}pgtc akmsv}tq lgv cynjycm }ltns`l = ctgv* 32“v ‖92“v* ham 92“v ‖jg}c 02“v* ham 02“v
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ham <2“v* gkm ham <2“v
(rtcvck}+ Cgfl rctanm lgv a}v rctvnkgj mav}akf}ayc flgtgf}ctav}afv* ds} nyct }lcqcgtv }lc vni}
pgtc“v lgyc akftcgvcm ak mahckvank gkm fnhrjc|a}q+ Vcyctgj rtndjchv gtc fnhhnk }n
gjhnv} gjj ni }lc ctgv gkm gtc mavfsvvcm dcjnp+
Vni}pgtc Rtndjch
Hgkq akmsv}tq ndvctyctv lgyc mciakcm rtndjchv gvvnfag}cm pa}l vni}pgtc mcycjnrhck} gv g
–ftavav’+ ]lc ahrgf
} ni vnhc ni }lc vrcf}gfsjgt vni}pgtc igajstcv lgyc nffsttcm nyct }lc rgv}mcfgmc+ A} av }tsc }lg} vni}pgtc rcnrjc vsffccm hntc ni}ck }lgk }lcq igaj+ ]lc rtndjch av jgv}ak` jnk`}ahc nt tcfsttak` ni}ck+ ]lc vc} ni rtndjchv }lg} gtc ckfnsk}ctcm ak }lc vni}pgtc mcycjnrhck} av kn}
jaha}cm }n vni}pgtc }lg} mncvk“} iskf}ank rtnrctjq
 
]lc Vni}pgtc Ftavav mg}cv dgfe }n }lc 7192“v plck }lc rtahgtq tcgvnkv int }lav va}sg}ank
pctc jcvv }lgk gffcr}gdjc vni}pgtc ck`akcctak` rtgf}afcv+ Ak }lc cgtjq v}g`cv ni vni}pgtc }lctc pgv g
jn} ni ak}ctcv} ak fnhrs}ctv* g jn} ni fnmc pta}}ck ds} kn cv}gdjavlcm v}gkmgtmv+ ]lck ak cgtjq 02“v g
jn} ni fnhrs}ct rtn`tghv v}gt}cm igajak` gkm rcnrjc jnv} fnkiamckfc gkm }lsv gk akmsv}tq ftavav pgvmcfjgtcm+ Ygtansv tcgvnkv jcgmak` }n }lc mavgv}ct,ftavav! akfjsmcm?Lgtmpgtc gmygkfcv ns}rgfak` }lc fgrgdaja}q }n dsajm vni}pgtc int }lav lgtmpgtc+]lc gdaja}q }n dsajm ak rgfc pa}l }lc mchgkmv+
Akftcgvak` mcrckmckfq nk vni}pgtc“v
 V}ts``jc }n dsajm tcjagdjc gkm la`l wsgja}q vni}pgtcRnnt mcva`k gkm akvsiiafack} tcvnstfcv+]lav ftavav }lns`l amck}aiacm ak }lc cgtjq qcgtv* c|av}v }n mg}c gkm pc lgyc c|ghrjcv ni vni}pgtc igajstcv gtnskm }lc pntjm+ Vni}pgtc av dgvafgjjq fnkvamctcm g igajstc ai }lc rtnocf} av}cthakg}cm dcfgsvc ni fnv}v nt nycttsk vflcmsjcv* ai }lc rtnocf} lgv c|rctackfcm nycttskv ak c|fcvvni 32# ni }lc nta`akgj nt ai }lc vni}pgtc tcvsj}v ak fjack} jgpvsa}v+ Vnhc c|ghrjcv ni igajstcv akfjsmcigajstc ni Gyag}ank }tgiiaf fnk}tnj vqv}chv* igajstc ni hcmafgj vni}pgtc* gkm igajstc ak}cjcfnhhskafg}ank vni}pgtc+ ]lc rtahgtq tcgvnk int }lcvc igajstcv av msc }n dgm vni}pgtcck`akcctak` rtgf}afcv gffcr}cm+ Vnhc ni }lc pntv} vni}pgtc rtgf}afcv akfjsmc?Kn lav}ntafgj vni}pgtc(hcgvstchck} mg}g+Tcocf}ank ni gffstg}c fnv} cv}ahg}cv+

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