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Chapter 1 : ICT and Society

Chapter 1 : ICT and Society

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Published by: quinnyqueen on Feb 10, 2009
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02/23/2014

 
1
Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society
L
ESSON
O
NE
: I
NTRODUCTION
 
OF
I
NFORMATION
 
AND
C
OMMUNICATION
 T
ECHNOLOGY
(ICT)
How our ancestor used to disperse information to others?
o
In the early year of Tanah Melayu, when there was no television or radio. The ‘Beduk’ play an important role.
o
The Headman of the village was the one who announced any news, beit birth, death, time of prayers or even when the village was in danger.
o
Different rhythms signified different events. The rhythm of the‘Beduk’ to announce death was different from the rhythm used toannounce prayers.
What is ICT?
o
ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devicesand software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmitand retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
A.) Information
o
Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading,investigation, study or research.
o
The tools to transmit information are the telephone, television andradio.
o
We need information to make decisions and to predict the future. For example, scientists can detect the formation of a tsunami using thelatest technology and warn the public to avoid disasters in the affectedareas.
o
Information is knowledge and helps us to fulfill our daily tasks. For example, forecasting the stock exchange market.
B.) Communication
o
Is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby informationis exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbalinteractions.
 
2
Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society
o
Previously, people communicated through sign or symbols, performing drama and poetry. With the advent of technology, these‘older’ forms of communication are less utilised as compared to theuse of the internet, e-mail or video conferencing.
C.) Technology
o
Is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and product that fulfill human needs.
o
Aiding Communication - telephone and fax machines are the devicesused in extending communication
o
Spreading Information – To broadcast information such as news or weather reports effectively. Radio, television, satellites and the WorldWide Web (www) are powerful tools that can be used.
Timeline For The Development Of Technology
 
YearCreation
3500 BCSumerians developed cuneiform writing1500 BCThe Phoenicians developed the alphabet105 BCTsai Lun of China invented pape1454The first printing began with the creation of printingmachine.1793Telegraph line was invented1876The first telephone was introduced1925Television was made known to public1941Computer was created1958Photocopier machine was introduced1963Communication satellite was introduced1969The first internet known as ARPANET started.
 
3
Form 4 Lesson Notes Part 1 ICT & Society
L
ESSON
T
WO
: E
VOLUTION
 
OF
C
OMPUTER 
 
Before the era of computer begins, counting machine was invented to help people with business industry. The usage of counting machine, begin as earlyas 200 B.C. Evolution of computers can be traced at 7 stages:a)The early years b)First generationc)Second generationd)Third generatione)Fourth generationf)Fifth generationg)New era generation
A. The early yearsTimelines of Counting Machine
YearInvention200 BCChinese Abacus (First counting machine)500 BCEgyptian Abacus1620John Napier invented Napier’s Bone (Multiplication table carveson bones)1653Blaise Pascal invented Pascaline1673Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz invented Leibnizs Rechne(which use first binary mathemathic calculating machine)1801Joseph Marie Jacquard invented weaving loom (using punchcard technology)1823Charles Babbage invented mechanical calculator machine.1941Mark 1 was invented in Harvard University. The first computewhich is slow, expensive and unreliable. It uses mechanicalswitches
B. First Generation (1940 – 1956)
1. Presper Eckert and William Mauchly built the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) in 1946.2. ENIAC use vacuum tubes rather than mechanical switches in Mark 1.3. In 1951, Eckert and Machly build UNIVAC (Universal automaticcomputer) which can calculate at the rate of 10 thousand additions per second.

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