Composting toilet (CT) technology is not newto Vanuatu. Before independence, some of therural schools on Ambae and North Efate, likeOnesua, were using these toilets.The CT design in this manual was adaptedfrom a toilet used in Tonga, Kiribati and Fiji.There are many advantages CTs have over pit,VIP, water sealed toilets and septic systems.
They do not smell when properlymaintained.
They do not pollute the environment orgroundwater.
They do not need to be moved when full.
They do not use water.
They are cheaper to build compared toseptic systems.
There is no bad smelling unhygienic septicwaste to remove and dispose of.
They require no digging of pits since theyare built on top of the ground, except forthe evapotranspiration (ET) beds fortreating the urine/liquid.
They can be built anywhere.
Tools & Materials List
As the availability of tools and materials variesfrom island to island, the lists shown here arefor what was used at the CT workshop inBlacksands in August 2004 for building thechambers and ET beds. Suggestions for usinglocal materials are included in the constructionsteps later in the manual. Materials used forconstructing the toilet house on top of thechambers will differ from island to island, so alist was not provided.
Hammers Nailing wood & using chiselHandsaws Cutting woodTrowels & woodenfloatsWorking concreteShovels Preparing site, mixing concreteSpirit Level Leveling blocks and concretePlumb Bob andString LineLeveling blocks and concreteString Line Marking out CT dimensionsMeasuring Tape Measuring CT dimensionsCold Chisel Breaking concrete blocksFly Screen Separating sand from coralChicken Wire w/25mm holesSeparating small coral fromlargeLarge bucket orwheelbarrowMixing concreteNo. 10 & 15 blockmouldMaking blocks for substructureBolt cutters orhacksawCutting rebar to sizePliers Cutting and fastening tie wireCarpenter’s square Accurate measurementsDrill Drilling holes in wood for bolts