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Investigate Problems Guide

Investigate Problems Guide

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Published by adbwaterforall
Investigate Problems Guide
Investigate Problems Guide

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Published by: adbwaterforall on Jan 14, 2013
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Continuous Improvement & Benchmarking
 
Investigate problems – Guide
When investigating problems, it is useful to find out what are the root causes underlying them. Weuse two tools for this – the Fishbone Diagram and the Why Why Diagram.The Fishbone Diagram should be used when you want to structure your groups of causes. Usethe Why Why Diagram when you want to go deep into the roots of the problem.
Fishbone Diagram
Purpose
When solving a problem it is common for people to jump to a solution based on their best guess.However there are usually many underlying causes to be addressed.The Fishbone diagram helps to identify the underlying causes of a problem on a simple diagram.The Fishbone diagram is also caused a Cause & Effect diagram.Underlying causes are also called “root causes”, because they are at the root of the problem.
When to use it
 After a problem has been defined and some data collected, the next step is usually to analyse theinformation collected for underlying causes.
How to use it
1. Define the problem
Draw the skeleton of the fishbone diagram as shown below. Write the basic problem, in neutral &factual terms
,
in the box on the right hand side.
 
Materials
 
Measurement
 
Equipment
 
Environment
 
People
 
Procedures
 
 
Effect 
 
Problem
 
Causes
 
2. Define the major categories of causes
124025431.doc Created: 30-Oct-04 Revised: 14-Mar-05 © 2004 ADB Institute1 of 8
 
Continuous Improvement & Benchmarking
 
Consider the major categories of causes. These are commonly things like people, customers,suppliers, equipment, processes, systems, environment, policies or procedures and so on. Note -they can be whatever you want, so long as they relate to the problem. Limit the major categoriesto between 4 and 6 (fewer is okay). Label the diagonal bones on the fish with these major categories.
3. Brainstorm
Brainstorm causes as a team. As ideas are given write them on the diagonal bones in thecategory to which they relate. When ideas are suggested, ask “why” or “what causes that” andwrite sub-causes as small bones off big ones. Keep asking “why”. Keep going until all ideas areexhausted.
4. Agree the most likely causes
Review the ideas especially the underlying ideas - underlying themes, common to several areasof the diagram, will emerge. Take note of these. Discuss the ideas and rank the causes in order of likely importance.
5. Verify likely causes
Review existing data for evidence of which causes are most important. If the data is unavailableor ambiguous, gather fresh data aimed at distinguishing between possible causes.
Example
MaterialsPeopleProcedures
20% of schoolchildren startyear without textbooksIncorrect booksorderedBooks orderedtoo lateTeachersnot trainedin orderingsystemChildren don’ttake proper careof booksTeachers takebooks to other schools whenthey leaveBooks deterioratedNotstoredproperlyNew curriculumlist sent toolateHead Teachersforget to sendorders in timeNewcurriculum listsent too late
124025431.doc Created: 30-Oct-04 Revised: 14-Mar-05 © 2004 ADB Institute2 of 8
 
Continuous Improvement & Benchmarking
 
124025431.doc Created: 30-Oct-04 Revised: 14-Mar-05 © 2004 ADB Institute3 of 8
Fishbone
MeasurementMaterialsEquipmentEnvironmentPeoplePolicies/Procedures
Effect Causes
Most important root causes:
Process:

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