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circulatory system

circulatory system

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bio095
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Published by: Mohd Ikmal Bin Asmuni on Jan 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/13/2013

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NIK/ASASI/2013
Page 1
 
Functions :
Transport ;1.
 
Metabolic wastes2.
 
Oxygen3.
 
Hormones4.
 
NutrientsHelps ;1.
 
Regulate body temperature2.
 
Stablize pH3.
 
Defends against invading microorganism4.
 
Maintains homeostatic balance
Composition and functions of blood
-
 
45% cellular elements
-
 
55% plasmaCellular elements
Components FunctionsErythrocytes (RBC) Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide (respiratorygases)Leukocytes (WBC) Helps in immunity and defensePlatelets Blood clotting
Plasma
Water SolventIons (electrolytes) -
 
Osmotic balance between blood and-
 
interstitial fluid-
 
pH buffer-
 
regulation of membrane permeabilityPlasma proteins; consist of Components FunctionsAlbumin Osmotic balanceFibrinogen Blood clottingImmunoglobin Body defenseSubstances transport by blood ( nutrients, respiratory gases, hormones) 10%
CHAPTER 3 : CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
 
NIK/ASASI/2013
Page 2
 
-
 
Lack nuclei and mitochondria-
 
Biconcave-
 
Thinner centre-
 
Formed in bone marrowComposition ;-
 
4 polypeptides chains
-
 
4 heme groups (organic compound)Heme group
has iron to bind with oxygenRBC ;-
 
Circulate in blood for 3 to 4 months-
 
Worn out RBC broken down
at liver
with the helps of enzymes-
 
Iron from the RBC back to bone marrow
:
to make other RBC
! 
Usually, granulocytes names, end with ‘phil’
 
While agranulocytes names end eith ‘cytes’
 
leukocytesagranulocytemonocyteslymphocytesgranulocytesneutrophilbasophileosinophil
Erythrocytes
Provide high TSA forgases exchange
Leukocytes (WBC)
 
NIK/ASASI/2013
Page 3
 
Adaptations
-
 
Irregular shape-
 
Nucleus constricted into two lobes-
 
Cytoplasm contain granules ; bluish black
Functions
-
 
Helps fight against infections-
 
Release histamine-
 
Phagocytes which fight bacteria-
 
Phagocytic action causes
 
formation of phagosome
 
Secretion of hydrolitic enzymes-
 
Phagocyte
Basophil
Histamine
-
 
dilates blood vessels
-
 
Allow other WBC to go to tissues
NeutrophilEosinophil

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