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diffrence between fm and pm

diffrence between fm and pm

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Published by Chandan Kumar
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Published by: Chandan Kumar on Jan 15, 2013
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EE 370:
Dr. Wajih Abu-Al-Saud (Modified)
 
Chapter V: Angle Modulation ver. 1.0 Lecture 19
 
Bandwidth of FM and PM Signals
The bandwidth of the different AM modulation techniques ranges from the bandwidth of the message signal (for SSB) to twice the bandwidth of the message signal (for DSBSCand Full AM). When FM signals were first proposed, it was thought that their bandwidthcan be reduced to an arbitrarily small value. Compared to the bandwidth of different AMmodulation techniques, this would in theory be a big advantage. It was assumed that asignal with an instantaneous frequency that changes over of range of 
 f 
Hz would havea bandwidth of 
 f 
Hz. When experiments were done, it was discovered that this was notthe case. It was discovered that the bandwidth of FM signals for a specific message signalwas at least equal to the bandwidth of the corresponding AM signal. In fact, FM signalscan be classified into two types: Narrowband and Wideband FM signals depending on the bandwidth of each of these signals
Narrowband FM and PM
The general form of an FM signal that results when modulating a signals
m
(
) is()cos()
 FM c
 g t A t k m
ω α α 
−∞
= +
∫ 
.A narrow band FM or PM signal satisfies the condition()1
 f 
k a
=
For FM and()1
 p
k m
=
For PM, where()()
a t m d 
α α 
−∞
=
∫ 
,such that a change in the message signal does not results in a lot of change in theinstantaneous frequency of the FM signal.  Now, we can write the above as
[ ]
()cos()
 FM c
 g t A t k a
ω 
= +
.Starting with FM, to evaluate the bandwidth of this signal, we need to expand it using a power series expansion. So, we will define a slightly different signal
 
EE 370:
Dr. Wajih Abu-Al-Saud (Modified)
 
Chapter V: Angle Modulation ver. 1.0 Lecture 19
 
{ }
()()
ˆ()
c c
 j t k a j jk a t  FM 
 g t A e A e e
ω ω 
+
= =
.Remember that
{ }
[ ] [ ]
()
ˆ()cos()sin()
c
 j t k a  FM c f c
 g t A e A t k a t jA t k a
ω 
ω ω 
+
= = + + +
,so
{ }
ˆ()Re()
 FM FM 
 g t g
=
. Now we can expand the term
()
 f 
 jk a
e
inˆ()
 FM 
 g
, which gives 
222333444223344
()()()ˆ()1()2!3!4!()()()()2!3!4!
 f f c f f c c c c c
 j  FM  j t j t j t j t j  f 
 j k a t j k a t j k a  g t A e jk a k a t jk a t k a  A e jk a t e e e e
ω ω ω ω ω ω 
= + + + + += + + +
Since
 f 
 
and
a
(
) are real (
a
(
) is real because it is the integral of a real function
m
(
)),and since Re{
e
 j
ω 
c
} = cos(
ω 
c
) and Re{
 je
 j
ω 
c
} = –sin(
ω 
c
), then
{ }
223344
ˆ()Re()()()()cos()()sin()cos()sin()cos()2!3!4!
 f f
 FM FM c f c c c c
 g t g k a t k a t k a  A t k a t t t t
ω ω ω ω ω 
== + + +
The assumption we made for narrowband FM is (()1
 f 
k a
=
). This assumption willresult in making all the terms with powers of ()
 f 
k a
greater than 1 to be small comparedto the first two terms. So, the following is a reasonable approximation for ()
 FM 
 g
[ ]
( )
() cos( ) ()sin( )
 FMNarrowband c f c
 g t A t kat
ωω    
,when()1
 f 
k a
=
.It must be stressed that the above approximation is only valid for narrowband FM signalsthat satisfy the condition (()1
 f 
k a
=
). The above signal is simply the addition (or actually the subtraction) of a cosine (the carrier) with a DSBSC signal (but using a sine asthe carrier). The message signal that modulates the DSBSC signal is not
m
(
) but itsintegration
a
(
). One of the properties of the Fourier transform informs us that the bandwidth of a signal
m
(
) and its integration
a
(
) (and its derivative too) are the same(verify this). Therefore, the bandwidth of the narrowband FM signal is
( ) ()
2
 FMNarrowband DSBSC m
 BW BW BW  
===
.

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