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Published by: outdash on Jan 16, 2013
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02/04/2013

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From a biological standpoint, R. Israel Meir Levinger (
'302505
) points out that as primarily develop due to diseases, the prevalence of increases with the age of an animal. Ina study involving over 8,000 cows in Israel (p. 304), R. Levinger discovered an average rate of 6.73% for calves (ages one and two) compared with 14.22% for cows (ages four and above). R. Levinger reported a 13%-16% overall rate in Yugoslavia, and rate of 25%-30% for oxen and 40%-50% for calves in other European countries. He notes that rates tend to be lower in Israel because there isalmost no market for non-kosher meat (
 
) and therefore greater effort is extended to attempt torule leniently regarding questionable (pp. 298-301, 506). R. Yisroel Belsky (
 Mesorah
,
 Adar 5765
, p. 63) refers to rates of 40%-50%.R. Levinger also compared the rates of cows raised for beef and cows raised for dairy in Israel. Hediscovered no statistically significant difference among older cows. However, the rate of in calvesraised for dairy was almost double that of calves raised for beef (15% to 5%). R. Levinger attributed thediscrepancy to the prevalent practice of dairy farms to wean their calves in a drastic fashion. The change of diet leads to colds and coughing, which cause to develop (pp. 331-332, 500-501). As theslaughtered dairy cows tend to be older, their rates should not be representative of cows in theimilking prime.
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