L37_ch09-The Americas: A Separate World- Early Civilizations of the Andes
1000 BCE - 700 CE
Foundational Civilizations of the Andean Region.
While civilizations were emerging in Mesoamerica, advanced societies were independentlydeveloping in South America. The early cultures of South America arose in a difficult environment, therugged terrain of the Andes Mountains. In the Andes Mountains, various groups created flourishingcivilizations.
Describe the environments
that nurtured South America’s early civilizations.
Compare/ Contrast the Moche and the Olmec.
the statement: The Andean region may have had several “mother” cultures that
contributed to the development of later Andean civilizations.
I. Societies Arise in the Andes
The Andes Mountains stretch about 4,500 miles down the western edge of South America, from
Colombia in the north to Chile in the south. South America’s first civilizations emerged in the northern
Andes region, in Peru.
Settlements on the Coastal PlainIn Peru, between the mountains and the Pacific Ocean, lies a narrow coastal plain. Most of thisplain is harsh desert where rain seldom falls. In some places, however, rivers cross the desert ontheir path from the mountains to the sea. It was in these river valleys that the first settlementsoccurred.1.
3600 - 2500 BCE: people begin establishing villages along the Pacific coast.2.
~3000 BCE: people begin farming.3.
1800 BCE: thriving communities exist along the coast.
The Chavín PeriodThe first influential civilization in South America arose not on the coast, however, but in themountains. This culture, known as the Chavín, flourished from around 900 B.C. to 200 B.C.Archaeologists named the culture after a major ruin, Chavín de Huántar, in the northern highlandsof Peru. Interestingly, archaeologists have found no evidence of political or economicorganization within the culture. They conclude that the Chavín were primarily a religiouscivilization that established certain patterns that helped unify Andean culture and lay thefoundation for later civilizations.1.
Chavin site contained pyramids, plazas, and massive earthen mounds.2.
Culture spread quickly across northern and central Peru.
II. Other Andean Civilizations Flourish
Around the time Chavín culture declined, other civilizations were emerging in Peru. First theNazca and then the Moche built societies that flourished in the Andes.
Nazca AchievementsThe Nazca culture flourished along the arid southern coast of Peru from around 200 BCE to 600CE.1.
Developed extensive irrigation systems, including underground canals.2.
Beautiful textiles and pottery featuring images of animals and mythological beings.3.
Extraordinary, but puzzling, set of creations known as the Nazca Lines.
Moche CultureOn the northern coast of Peru, the Moche civilization was reaching great heights from about 100to 700. They took advantage of the rivers that flowed from the Andes Mountains.1.
Built impressive irrigation systems to water their wide range of crops- corn, beans,potatoes, squash, and peanuts.